ABS  
Returns the absolute value of a number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number is the number whose absolute
value is to be calculated. The absolute value of a number is its value
without the +/ sign. 
ACCRINT  
Calculates the accrued interest for a security with periodic interest payments.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
issue: the issue date of the
security. first_interest: the first interest date of the security. settlement: the date at which the interest accrued up until then is to be calculated. rate: the annual nominal rate of interest (coupon interest rate) par: the par value of the security. frequency: the number of interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). basis: is chosen from a list of options and indicates how the year is to be calculated. Defaults to 0 if omitted. 0  US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each 1  Exact number of days in months, exact number of days in year 2  Exact number of days in month, year has 360 days 3  Exact number of days in month, year has 365 days 4  European method, 12 months of 30 days each 
ACCRINTM  
Calculates the accrued interest for a security that pays at maturity.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
issue: the issue date of the
security. settlement: the date at which the interest accrued up until then is to be calculated. rate: the annual nominal rate of interest (coupon interest rate) par: the par value of the security. basis: is chosen from a list of options and indicates how the year is to be calculated. Defaults to 0 if omitted. 0  US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each 1  Exact number of days in months, exact number of days in year 2  Exact number of days in month, year has 360 days 3  Exact number of days in month, year has 365 days 4  European method, 12 months of 30 days each 
ACOS  
Returns the inverse cosine (the arccosine) of a number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the inverse trigonometric cosine of
number, in other words the angle (in radians) whose cosine is
number. The angle returned is between 0 and
PI. To return the angle in degrees, use the DEGREES function. 
ACOSH  
Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of
number, in other words the number whose hyperbolic cosine is
number. number must be greater than or equal to 1. 
ACOT  
Returns the inverse cotangent (the arccotangent) of a number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the inverse trigonometric cotangent of
number, in other words the angle (in radians) whose cotangent
is number. The angle returned is between 0
and PI. To return the angle in degrees, use the DEGREES function. 
ACOTH  
Returns the inverse hyperbolic cotangent of the given number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the inverse hyperbolic cotangent of
number, in other words the number whose hyperbolic cotangent
is number. An error results if number is between 1 and 1 inclusive. 
ADDRESS  
Returns a cell reference as text, given row and column numbers.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
row is a number specifying the row. column is a number (not a letter) specifying the column. mode (an optional number) determines whether the cell address is absolute or relative. If omitted, it is assumed to be 1. ref_type (optional) is a logical value that specifies the A1 or R1C1 reference style. sheet is an optional text string specifying the sheet. 
AMORDEGRC  
Returns depreciation for a period using degressive depreciation (French system).  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
cost: the acquisition cost. purchase_date: the date of acquisition. first_period_end: the end date of the first depreciation period. salvage: the salvage value at the end of life. period: the period for which to calculate depreciation. 0 is the initial period (from purchase_date to first_period_end. rate: the rate of depreciation. basis: is chosen from a list of options and indicates how the year is to be calculated. Defaults to 0 if omitted. 0  US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each 1  Exact number of days in months, exact number of days in year 2  Exact number of days in month, year has 360 days 3  Exact number of days in month, year has 365 days 4  European method, 12 months of 30 days each 
AMORLINC  
Returns depreciation for a period using linear depreciation (French system).  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
cost: the acquisition cost. purchase_date: the date of acquisition. first_period_end: the end date of the first depreciation period. salvage: the salvage value at the end of life. period: the period for which to calculate depreciation. 0 is the initial period (from purchase_date to first_period_end). rate: the rate of depreciation. basis: is chosen from a list of options and indicates how the year is to be calculated. Defaults to 0 if omitted. 0  US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each 1  Exact number of days in months, exact number of days in year 2  Exact number of days in month, year has 360 days 3  Exact number of days in month, year has 365 days 4  European method, 12 months of 30 days each 
AND  
Returns TRUE if all the arguments are considered TRUE, and FALSE otherwise.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
AND tests every value (as an argument, or in each referenced cell), and returns TRUE if they are all TRUE. Any value which is a nonzero number or text is considered to be TRUE. 
ARABIC  
Returns an Arabic number (eg 14), given a Roman number (eg XIV).  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the Roman numeral text as a
number, limited to the range 13999. 
AREAS  
Returns the number of areas in a given reference.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
reference may consist of multiple
ranges. AREAS returns the count of these ranges. 
ASIN  
Returns the inverse sine (the arcsine) of a number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the inverse trigonometric sine of
number, in other words the angle (in radians) whose sine is
number. The angle returned is between PI/2
and +PI/2. To return the angle in degrees, use the DEGREES function. 
ASINH  
Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of number,
in other words the number whose hyperbolic sine is number.

ATAN  
Returns the inverse tangent (the arctangent) of a number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the inverse trigonometric tangent of
number, in other words the angle (in radians) whose tangent is
number. The angle returned is between PI/2
and PI/2. To return the angle in degrees, use the DEGREES function. 
ATAN2  
Returns the inverse tangent (the arctangent) for specified x and y coordinates.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
x_coord is the value of the x
coordinate. y_coord is the value of the y coordinate. ATAN2 returns the inverse trigonometric tangent, that is, the angle (in radians) between the xaxis and a line from point x_coord, y_coord to the origin. The angle returned is between PI and PI. To return the angle in degrees, use the DEGREES function. 
ATANH  
Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of
number, in other words the number whose hyperbolic tangent is
number. number must obey the condition 1 < number < 1. 
AVEDEV  
Returns the average of the absolute deviations of values from their mean.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number1 to number30
are up to 30 numbers or ranges containing numbers. AVEDEV calculates the mean of the numbers, then the absolute (positive signed) deviation of each number from that mean. 
AVERAGE  
Returns the average of the arguments, ignoring text.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number1 to number30
are up to 30 numbers or ranges containing numbers. 
AVERAGEA  
Returns the average of the arguments, including text (valued as 0).  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
value1 to value30
are up to 30 values or ranges, which may include numbers, text and
logical values. Text is evaluated as 0. Logical values are evaluated as 1 ( TRUE) and 0 ( FALSE). 
AVERAGEIF  
Conditionally returns the average the contents of cells in a range.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
This function identifies those cells in the range
test_range that meet the condition, and
and returns the average of the corresponding cells in the range
average_range.
If average_range is omitted, the cells present in
test_range are considered. condition may be: A number, such as 34.5 An expression, such as 2/3 or SQRT(B5) A text string AVERAGEIF looks for cells in test_range that conforms to condition, unless condition is a text string that starts with a comparator: >, <, >=, <=, =, <> In this case AVERAGEIF compares those cells in test_range with the remainder of the text string (interpreted as a number if possible or text otherwise). 
AVERAGEIFS  
Conditionally returns the average of the contents of cells for the set of ranges.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
This function identifies those cells in the
test_ranges that meet the conditions, and returns the
averages of the corresponding cells in the range average_range. condition may be: A number, such as 34.5 An expression, such as 2/3 or SQRT(B5) A text string AVERAGEIFS looks for cells in test_ranges that are equal to corresponding conditions, unless conditions are text string that starts with the comparator's: >, <, >=, <=, =, <> In this case AVERAGEIFS compares those cells in test_range's with the remainder of the text string (interpreted as a number if possible or text otherwise). 
B  
Calculates probabilities for a binomial distribution.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
With n independent trials, each
with a probability p of success, B
returns the probability that the number of successes will be between
k and k2 inclusive, or if k2
is omitted the probability that the number of successes will be exactly
k. 
BASE  
Returns a text representation of a number, in a specified base radix.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Converts number (a positive
integer) to text, with the base radix radix (an
integer between 2 and 36), using characters 09 and
AZ. minlength (optional) specifies the minimum number of characters returned; zeroes are added on the left if necessary. 
BESSELI  
Calculates the modified Bessel function of the first kind.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the modified Bessel function of the first
kind, of order n, evaluated at x. 
BESSELJ  
Calculates the Bessel function of the first kind.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the Bessel function of the first kind, of order
n, evaluated at x. 
BESSELK  
Calculates the modified Bessel function of the second kind.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the modifed Bessel function of the second
kind, of order n, evaluated at x. 
BESSELY  
Calculates the Bessel function of the second kind (the Neumann or Weber function).  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the Bessel function of the second kind, of
order n, evaluated at x. 
BETADIST  
Calculates the cumulative distribution function or the probability density function of a beta distribution.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
X is
the number, at which you will evaluate the Beta distribution. α and β are parameters controlling the shape of the distribution. a and b are optional parameters which default (if omitted) to 0 and 1. cumulative is an optional, logical parameter which defaults to TRUE() if omitted. 
BETAINV  
Calculates the inverse of the BETADIST function.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
The beta distribution is a family of continuous
probability distributions, defined for an interval a
to b, where
are α and β parameters controlling the shape of the distribution. BETAINV returns the value n, lying between a and b, such that BETADIST(n; α; β; a; b) is p. a and b are optional parameters which default (if omitted) to 0 and 1. 
BIN2DEC  
Converts a binary number to decimal.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns a (decimal) number, given binarynumber,
which may be text, or a number containing only digits 1 and 0 (thus the
number appears to be binary although it is not). binarynumber may have up to ten bits in two's complement representation; positive numbers are 0 to 111111111 (nine bits representing 0 to 511 decimal) and negative numbers 1111111111 to 1000000000 (ten bits representing 1 to 512 decimal) 
BIN2HEX  
Converts a binary number to hexadecimal.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns text representing a hexadecimal number, given
binarynumber, which may be text, or a number containing only
digits 1 and 0 (thus the number appears to be binary although it is
not). binarynumber may have up to ten bits in two's complement representation; positive numbers are 0 to 111111111 (nine bits representing 0 to 511 decimal) and negative numbers 1111111111 to 1000000000 (ten bits representing 1 to 512 decimal) numdigits is an optional number specifying the number of digits to return. If binarynumber is negative, BIN2HEX returns ten hexadecimal digits, representing the hexadecimal number in twos complement form. 
BIN2OCT  
Converts a binary number to octal.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns text representing a octal number, given
binarynumber, which may be text, or a number containing only
digits 1 and 0 (thus the number appears to be binary although it is
not). binarynumber may have up to ten bits in two's complement representation; positive numbers are 0 to 111111111 (nine bits representing 0 to 511 decimal) and negative numbers 1111111111 to 1000000000 (ten bits representing 1 to 512 decimal) If binarynumber is negative, BIN2OCT returns ten octal digits, representing the octal number in two's complement form. 
BINOMDIST  
Calculates probabilities for a binomial distribution.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
With n independent trials, each
with a probability p of success, BINOMDIST
returns the probability that the number of successes will be Exactly k if mode is 0. Up to (and including) k if mode is 1. In other words, BINOMDIST returns the probability mass function if mode is 0, and the cumulative probability function if mode is 1. 
CEILING  
Returns a number rounded up to a multiple of another number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number is the number that is to be
rounded up to a multiple of mult. If mode is zero or omitted, CEILING rounds up to the multiple above (greater than or equal to) number. If mode is nonzero, CEILING rounds up away from zero. This is only relevant with negative numbers. 
CELL  
Returns information about the address, formatting or contents of a cell.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns information about the cell cell_ref.
The information returned depends on the (case insensitive) text string info_type, which can be set as follows: COL CELL() returns the number of the referenced column. ROW CELL() returns the number of the referenced row. SHEET CELL() returns the number of the referenced sheet. ADDRESS CELL() returns the absolute address of the referenced cell, as text. COORD CELL() returns the complete cell address in Lotus^{(TM)} notation, as text. CONTENTS CELL() returns the contents of the referenced cell, without any formatting. TYPE CELL() returns text that indicates the type of cell contents: b (blank) signifies an empty cell l (label) signifies text, or the result of a formula as text v (value) signifies a number, or the result of a formula as a number WIDTH CELL() returns the width of the referenced column. The unit is the number of zeros (0) that fit into the column in the default text and the default size. PREFIX CELL() returns text that indicates the alignment of the referenced cell, as: ' = align left or leftjustified " = align right ^ = centered \ = repeating (currently inactive) FORMAT CELL() returns text that indicates the number format: , = number with thousands separator F = number without thousands separator C = currency format S = exponential representation, for example 1.234+E56 P = percentage In the above formats, the number of decimal places after the decimal separator is given as a number. Example: the number format #,##0.0 returns ,1 and the number format 00.000% returns P3 D1 = MMMDYY, MMDYY and similar formats D2 = DDMM D3 = MMYY D4 = DDMMYYYY HH:MM:SS D5 = MMDD D6 = HH:MM:SS AM/PM D7 = HH:MM AM/PM D8 = HH:MM:SS D9 = HH:MM G = All other formats  (Minus) at the end = negative numbers are formatted in color () (brackets) at the end = there is an opening bracket in the format code COLOR CELL() returns 1, if negative values have been formatted in color, otherwise 0. PARENTHESES CELL() returns 1 if the format code contains an opening bracket (, otherwise 0. 
CHAR  
Returns a single text character, given a character code.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number is the character code, in
the range 1255. CHAR uses your system's character mapping (for example iso88591, iso88592, Windows1252, Windows1250) to determine which character to return. Codes greater than 127 may not be portable. 
CHIDIST  
Calculates values for a χ^{2}distribution.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
k is the (positive integer) degrees
of freedom for the χ^{2}distribution. x is a number >=0. 
CHIINV  
Calculates the inverse of the CHIDIST function.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
k is the (positive integer) degrees
of freedom for the χ^{2}distribution. CHIINV(p; k) returns the value x, such that CHIDIST(x; k) is p. 
CHISQDIST  
Calculates values for a χ^{2}distribution.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
x is the number, at which you will
evaluate the χ^{2}distribution. k sets the degrees of freedom for the χ^{2}distribution Constraint: k must be a positive integer Cumulative is a logical value. In the case Cumulative=TRUE() the cumulative distribution function is used, in the case Cumulative=FALSE() the probability density function. This parameter is optional. It is set toTRUE() if missing. 
CHISQINV  
Calculates the inverse of the CHISQDIST function.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
k is the degrees of freedom for the
χ^{2}distribution. Constraint: k must be a positive integer p is the given probability Constraint: 0 ≤ p < 1 
CHITEST  
Returns a measure of χ^{2} 'goodness of fit'.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
observed and expected
are ranges or arrays of observed and expected values. They must have
the same number of rows and columns and there must be at least 2 values
in each. 
CHOOSE  
Returns a value from a list, given an index number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
value1 ... value30
are up to 30 values, each of which may be text, a number, a logical
value, a reference or a formula. index is an index number specifying which of value1 ... value30 to return; 1 returns value1, 2 returns value2, etc. 
CLEAN  
returns a text string with nonprintable characters removed.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns text with all nonprintable
characters removed. Spaces are not removed. 
CODE  
returns the numeric code for the first character in a text string.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the numeric code for the first character of
the text string text, in the range 0255. Codes greater than 127 may depend on your system's character mapping (for example iso88591, iso88592, Windows1252, Windows1250), and hence may not be portable. 
COLUMN  
Returns the column number(s), given a reference.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the column number of reference,
where reference is a reference to a cell. If reference is omitted, the column number of the current cell (containing the formula) is returned. 
COLUMNS  
Returns the number of columns in a given reference.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
reference may be given either
explicitly (eg A3:B5) or by name (eg myref). 
COMBIN  
Returns the number of combinations of a subset of items.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
n is the number of items in the set. k is the number of items to choose from the set. COMBIN returns the number of ways to choose these items. 
COMBINA  
Returns the number of combinations of a subset of items.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
n is the number of items in the set. k is the number of items to choose from the set. COMBINA returns the number of unique ways to choose these items, where the order of choosing is irrelevant, and repetition of items is allowed. 
COMPLEX  
Returns a complex number, given real and imaginary parts.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns a complex number as text, in the form
a+bi or a+bj. realpart and imaginarypart are numbers. suffix is optional text i or j (in lowercase) to indicate the imaginary part of the complex number; it defaults to i. 
CONCATENATE  
Combines several text strings into one string.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns up to 30 text strings text1
 text30, joined together. text1  text30 may also be single cell references. 
CONFIDENCE  
Returns a confidence interval.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
sd (> 0) is the (known)
standard deviation of a normal distribution. size is the size of a sample from that distribution. α is the significance level (0 < α < 1), which determines the desired confidence level = (1  α)*100%. Thus for example α = 0.05 gives a 95% confidence level. 
CONVERT  
Converts a number from one measurement system to another.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number is the number to be
converted. originalunits and newunits are text representing the original and new measurement systems. These are casesensitive, and must be selected from the table below.

CORREL  
Returns the Pearson correlation coefficient of two sets of data.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Where x and y
are ranges or arrays containing the two sets of data. 
COS  
Returns the cosine of the given angle (in radians).  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the (trigonometric) cosine of angle,
the angle in radians. To return the cosine of an angle in degrees, use the RADIANS function. 
COSH  
Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the hyperbolic cosine of number. 
COT  
Returns the cotangent of the given angle (in radians).  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the (trigonometric) cotangent of angle,
the angle in radians. To return the cotangent of an angle in degrees, use the RADIANS function. 
COTH  
Returns the hyperbolic cotangent of a number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the hyperbolic cotangent of number. 
COUNT  
Counts the numbers in the list of arguments, ignoring text entries.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
value1 to value30 are up to 30 values or ranges representing the values to be counted. 
COUNTA  
Counts the nonempty values in the list of arguments.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
value1 to value30 are up to 30 values or ranges representing the values to be counted. 
COUNTBLANK  
Returns the number of empty cells.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the number of empty cells in the cell range
range. A cell that contains blank text such as spaces, or even text with zero length such as returned by ="", is not considered empty, even though it may appear empty. 
COUNTIF  
Counts the number of cells in a range that meet a specified condition.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
test_range is the range to be
tested. condition may be: A number, such as 34.5 An expression, such as 2/3 or SQRT(B5) A text string COUNTIF counts those cells in test_range that are equal to condition, unless condition is a text string that starts with a comparator: >, <, >=, <=, =, <> In this case COUNTIF compares those cells in test_range with the remainder of the text string (interpreted as a number if possible or text otherwise). 
COUNTIFS  
Counts the number of times each cells in all the ranges that meet the specific conditions.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
test_range1 is the range to be
tested. condition may be: A number, such as 34.5 An expression, such as 2/3 or SQRT(B5) A text string test_range2,condition2,… Optional. Up to 127 range/criteria pairs are allowed. COUNTIFS counts those cells in test_range's that are equal to the corresponding conditions, unless conditions are text string that starts with a comparator's: >, <, >=, <=, =, <> In this case COUNTIFS compares those cells in test_range’s with the remainder of the text string (interpreted as a number if possible or text otherwise). 
COUPDAYBS  
Returns the number of days between the coupon date preceding the settlement, and the settlement date.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
settlement: the date of purchase of
the security. maturity: the date on which the security matures (expires). frequency: number of interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). basis: is the calendar system to use. Defaults to 0 if omitted. 0  US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each 1  Actual number of days in months, actual number of days in year 2  Actual number of days in month, year has 360 days 3  Actual number of days in month, year has 365 days 4  European method, 12 months of 30 days each 
COUPDAYS  
Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
settlement: the date of purchase of
the security. maturity: the date on which the security matures (expires). frequency: number of interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). basis: is the calendar system to use. Defaults to 0 if omitted. 0  US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each 1  Actual number of days in months, actual number of days in year 2  Actual number of days in month, year has 360 days 3  Actual number of days in month, year has 365 days 4  European method, 12 months of 30 days each 
COUPDAYSNC  
Returns the number of days between the settlement date and the next coupon date.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
settlement: the date of purchase of
the security. maturity: the date on which the security matures (expires). frequency: number of interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). basis: is the calendar system to use. Defaults to 0 if omitted. 0  US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each 1  Actual number of days in months, actual number of days in year 2  Actual number of days in month, year has 360 days 3  Actual number of days in month, year has 365 days 4  European method, 12 months of 30 days each 
COUPNCD  
Returns the coupon date next after the settlement date.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
settlement: the date of purchase of
the security. maturity: the date on which the security matures (expires). frequency: number of interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). basis: is the calendar system to use. Defaults to 0 if omitted. 0  US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each 1  Actual number of days in months, actual number of days in year 2  Actual number of days in month, year has 360 days 3  Actual number of days in month, year has 365 days 4  European method, 12 months of 30 days each 
COUPNUM  
Returns the number of coupons (interest payments) between the settlement date and maturity.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
settlement: the date of purchase of
the security. maturity: the date on which the security matures (expires). frequency: number of interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). basis: is the calendar system to use. Defaults to 0 if omitted. 0  US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each 1  Actual number of days in months, actual number of days in year 2  Actual number of days in month, year has 360 days 3  Actual number of days in month, year has 365 days 4  European method, 12 months of 30 days each 
COUPPCD  
Returns the coupon (interest payment) date which precedes the settlement date.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
settlement: the date of purchase of
the security. maturity: the date on which the security matures (expires). frequency: number of interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). basis: is the calendar system to use. Defaults to 0 if omitted. 0  US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each 1  Actual number of days in months, actual number of days in year 2  Actual number of days in month, year has 360 days 3  Actual number of days in month, year has 365 days 4  European method, 12 months of 30 days each 
COVAR  
Returns the covariance of two sets of data.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Where x and y
are ranges or arrays containing the two sets of data. 
CRITBINOM  
Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is greater than or equal to a criterion value.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
With n independent trials, each
with a probability p of success, CRITBINOM
returns the number of successes, up to and including which are expected
with a probability a. 
CUMIPMT  
Returns the total interest paid on a loan in specified periodic payments.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
rate: the interest rate per period. numperiods: the total number of payment periods in the term. presentvalue: the initial sum borrowed. start: the first period to include. Periods are numbered beginning with 1. end: the last period to include. type: when payments are made: 0  at the end of each period. 1  at the start of each period (including a payment at the start of the term). 
CUMPRINC  
Returns the total capital repaid on a loan in specified periodic payments.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
rate: the interest rate per period. numperiods: the total number of payment periods in the term. presentvalue: the initial sum borrowed. start: the first period to include. Periods are numbered beginning with 1. end: the last period to include. type: when payments are made: 0  at the end of each period. 1  at the start of each period (including a payment at the start of the term). 
CURRENT  
Returns the current (to date) result of evaluating the formula.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
This function returns the result to date of evaluating
the formula of which it is a part (in other words the result as far as
that evaluation has got). 
CURRENCY  
Converts the given value from one currency to another specified currency value.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Converts the given value from one currency to another specified currency value. value: The value to be converted. Eg., 3500 from: The currency from which the value is to be converted. Must be given as a currency code. Eg., "USD" to: The currency into which the value is to be converted. Must be given as a currency code. Eg., "INR" 

Supported Currency Codes:  


Note: The data provided is for informational purpose only and may be delayed upto 30 minutes. Data provided for free by Exchange Rate API. Exchange Rate API Terms. 
DATE  
returns the date, given the year, month and day of the month.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the date, expressed as a datetime serial
number. year is an integer between 1583 and 9956 or between 0 and 99; month and day are integers. 
DATEDIF  
Returns the number of days, months, or years between two given dates.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
start_date "Starting date for the period. end_date Final or end date for the specified period. type Indicates how the result must be. Supported Type Y  Number of years in the given period M  Number of months in the given period D  Number of days in the given period MD  Difference between days in start_date and end_date, ignoring the months and years. YM  Difference between months in start_date and end_date, ignoring the days and years. YD  Difference between the days in start_date and end_date, ignoring the years alone. 
DATEVALUE  
returns the datetime serial number, from a date given as text.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
datetext is a date, expressed as
text. DATEVALUE returns the datetime serial number, which may be formatted to read as a date. 
DAVERAGE  
Returns the average of values in a column of a Calc 'database' table, in rows which meet specified criteria.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
database_table
is a range defining the data to be processed. field is the column to examine. criteria_table is a range containing criteria, which are used to select which rows of the database_table to examine. 
DAY  
Returns the day of a given date.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the day of date as a number
( 1 31). 
DAYS  
Returns the number of days between two dates  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
startdate and enddate
may be dates as numbers or text (which is converted to number form). DAYS returns enddate  startdate. The result may be negative. 
DAYS360  
Returns the number of days between two dates, using the 360 day year.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
startdate and enddate
are the starting and ending dates (text or datetime serial numbers). If
startdate is earlier than enddate, the
result will be negative. method is an optional parameter; if 0 or omitted, the US National Association of Securities Dealers (NASD) method of calculation is used; if 1 (or <>0) the European method of calcuation is used. The calculation assumes that all months have 30 days, so a year (12 months) has 360 days. 
DAYSINMONTH  
Returns the number of days in a month.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the number of days in the month in which
date lies. 
DAYSINYEAR  
Returns the number of days in a year.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the number of days in the year in which
date lies. 
DB  
Returns the depreciation of an asset for a given year using the fixed rate decliningbalance method.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
originalcost: the initial cost of
the asset. salvagevalue: is the value at the end of the depreciation (sometimes called the salvage value of the asset). lifetime: the number of years over which the asset is being depreciated. year: the year number for which the depreciation is calculated. months1styear: the number of months in the first year (defaults to 12 if omitted). 
DCOUNT  
Counts the cells containing numbers in a column of a Calc 'database' table, in rows which meet specified criteria.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
database_table is a range defining
the data to be processed. field is the column to count. criteria_table is a range containing criteria, to select which rows of the database_table to count. 
DCOUNTA  
Counts the nonempty cells in a column of a Calc 'database' table, in rows which meet specified criteria.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
database_table is a range defining
the data to be processed. field is the column to count. criteria_table is a range containing criteria, to select which rows of the database_table to count. 
DDB  
Returns the depreciation of an asset for a given year using the double (or other factor) decliningbalance method.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
originalcost: the initial cost of
the asset. salvagevalue: is the value at the end of the depreciation (sometimes called the salvage value of the asset). lifetime: the number of years over which the asset is being depreciated. year: the year number for which the depreciation is calculated. factor: the factor to set the depreciation rate (2 if omitted). 
DEC2BIN  
Converts a decimal number to binary.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns a binary number as text, given the decimal
number, which must be between 512 and 511 inclusive, and may
be text or a number. The output is a binary number with up to ten bits in two's complement representation; positive numbers are 0 to 111111111 (nine bits representing 0 to 511 decimal) and negative numbers 1111111111 to 1000000000 (ten bits representing 1 to 512 decimal). numdigits is an optional number specifying the number of digits to return. 
DEC2HEX  
Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns a hexadecimal number as text, given the decimal
number, which must be between 2^{39} and
2^{39}1 inclusive, and may be text or a number. The output is a hexadecimal number with up to ten digits in two's complement representation. numdigits is an optional number specifying the number of digits to return. 
DEC2OCT  
Converts a decimal number to octal.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns an octal number as text, given the decimal
number, which must be between 2^{29} and
2^{29}1 inclusive, and may be text or a number. The result is an octal number with up to ten digits in two's complement representation. numdigits is an optional number specifying the number of digits to return. 
DECIMAL  
Returns a decimal number, given a text representation and its base radix.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
text is text representing a number
with the base radix radix (an integer between 2 and
36). Any leading spaces and tabs are ignored. Letters, if any, may be upper or lower case. If radix is 16 (hexadecimal system), any leading 0x, 0X, x or X is ignored, as is any trailing h or H. If radix is 2 (binary system), any trailing b or B is ignored. 
DEGREES  
Converts radians into degrees.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
radians is the angle in radians to
be converted to degrees. 
DELTA  
Returns 1 if two numbers are equal, and 0 otherwise.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number1 and number2
are numbers. If number2 is omitted it is assumed to
be 0. This function is an implementation of the (mathematical) Kronecker delta function. number1=number2 returns TRUE or FALSE instead of 1 or 0, but is otherwise identical for number arguments. 
DEVSQ  
Returns the sum of squares of deviations from the mean.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number1 to number30
are up to 30 numbers or ranges containing numbers. DEVSQ calculates the mean of all the numbers, then sums the squared deviation of each number from that mean. 
DGET  
returns the contents of a cell in a column of a database table, in the unique row meeting the criteria.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
database_table is a range defining
the data to be processed. field is the column containing the cell. criteria_table is a range containing criteria, which are used to select the unique row of the database_table. 
DISC  
Returns the discount rate of a security.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
settlementdate: the settlement
(purchase) date of the security. maturitydate: the maturity (redemption) date of the security. price: the price of the security. redemptionvalue: the redemption value of the security. basis: is the calendar system to use. Defaults to 0 if omitted. 0  US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each 1  Actual number of days in months, actual number of days in year 2  Actual number of days in month, year has 360 days 3  Actual number of days in month, year has 365 days 4  European method, 12 months of 30 days each 
DMAX  
Returns the largest value in a column of a Calc 'database' table, in rows which meet specified criteria.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
database_table is a range defining
the data to be processed. field is the column to examine. criteria_table is a range containing criteria, which are used to select which rows of the database_table to examine. 
DMIN  
Returns the minimum (lowest) value in a column of a Calc 'database' table, in rows which meet specified criteria.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
database_table is a range defining
the data to be processed. field is the column to examine. criteria_table is a range containing criteria, which are used to select which rows of the database_table to examine. 
DOLLAR  
Returns text representing a number in your local currency format.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns text representing number as
currency. decimals (optional, assumed to be
2 if omitted) sets the number of decimal places. 
DOLLARDE  
Converts a fractional number representation of a number into a decimal number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
fractionalrep: the fractional
representation. Sometimes a security price, for example, might be
expressed as 2.03, meaning $2 and 3/16 of a dollar. denominator: the denominator  for example, 16 in the example above. DOLLARDE converts the fractional representation to decimal. Despite its name, it returns a number, not a currency. Its inverse is DOLLARFR. 
DOLLARFR  
Converts a decimal number into a fractional representation of that number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
decimal: the decimal number. denominator: the denominator for the fractional representation. Sometimes a security price, for example, might be expressed as 2.03, a fractional representation meaning $2 and 3/16 of a dollar. As a decimal this is 2.1875. DOLLARFR converts the decimal representation to a fractional representation. Despite its name, it returns a number, not a currency. Its inverse is DOLLARDE. 
DPRODUCT  
Returns the product of cells in a column of a Calc 'database' table, in rows which meet specified criteria.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
database_table is a range defining
the data to be processed. field is the column to sum. criteria_table is a range containing criteria, which are used to select which rows of the database_table to sum. 
DSTDEV  
Returns the sample standard deviation of values in a column of a Calc 'database' table, in rows which meet specified criteria.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
database_table is a range defining
the data to be examined. field is the column to examine. criteria_table is a range containing criteria, which are used to select which rows of the database_table to examine. 
DSTDEVP  
Returns the standard deviation of values in a column of a Calc 'database' table, in rows which meet specified criteria.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
database_table is a range defining
the data to be examined. field is the column to examine. criteria_table is a range containing criteria, which are used to select which rows of the database_table to examine. 
DSUM  
Sums the cells in a column of a Calc 'database' table, in rows which meet specified criteria.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
database_table is a range defining
the data to be processed. field is the column to sum. criteria_table is a range containing criteria, which are used to select which rows of the database_table to sum. 
PDURATION  
Returns the number of periods needed for an investment to reach a certain value.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
rate: the interest rate per period
that will apply to the investment. present_value: the value of the investment now. future_value: the desired value of the investment in the future. 
DURATION  
Returns the Macaulay duration of a security.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
settlementdate: the settlement
(purchase) date of the bond. maturitydate: the maturity (redemption) date of the bond. rate: the (annual) interest rate of the bond. yield: the (annual) yield of the bond. frequency: the number of interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). basis: is the calendar system to use. Defaults to 0 if omitted. 0  US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each 1  Actual number of days in months, actual number of days in year 2  Actual number of days in month, year has 360 days 3  Actual number of days in month, year has 365 days 4  European method, 12 months of 30 days each 
DVAR  
Returns the biascorrected sample variance of values in a column of a Calc 'database' table, in rows which meet specified criteria.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
database_table is a range defining
the data to be examined. field is the column to examine. criteria_table is a range containing criteria, which are used to select which rows of the database_table to examine. 
DVARP  
Returns the population variance of values in a column of a Calc 'database' table, in rows which meet specified criteria.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
database_table is a range defining
the data to be examined. field is the column to examine. criteria_table is a range containing criteria, which are used to select which rows of the database_table to examine. 
EASTERSUNDAY  
Returns the date of Easter Sunday in a given year.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
year is an integer between 1583 and
9956 or between 0 and 99, specifying the year. 
EDATE  
Returns a date a number of months away.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
months is a number of months that
are added to the startdate. The day of the month
remains unchanged, unless it is more than the number of days in the new
month (when it becomes the last day of that month). months may be negative. 
EFFECTIVE  
Returns the effective compounded interest rate given a nominal interest rate.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
nom_rate: the nominal interest rate. num: the number of times interest is credited / compounded during the period that nom_rate applies to. If an investment has a nominal rate, say for a year, but interest is paid and credited say each quarter, the interest paid each quarter will itself start earning interest. This increases the effective value. This function returns the effective rate  that is, the rate that would have to be paid at the end of the (say) year to give the same return. 
EOMONTH  
Returns the date of the last day of a month.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
addmonths is a number of months to
be added to the startdate (given as text or a
datetime serial number), to give a new date. For this new date,
EOMONTH returns the date of the last day of the month, as a
datetime serial number. addmonths may be positive (in the future), zero or negative (in the past). 
ERF  
Calculates the error function (Gauss error function).  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
If number2 is omitted, returns the
error function calculated between 0 and number1,
otherwise returns the error function calculated between number1
and number2. 
ERFC  
Calculates the complementary error function (complementary Gauss error function).  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the error
function calculated
between number and infinity, that is, the
complementary error function for number. 
ERRORTYPE  
Returns the number corresponding to an error value.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the error number of the cell referred to by
reference, or #N/A if that cell has no
error. 
EVEN  
Rounds a number up, away from zero, to the next even integer.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns number rounded to the next
even integer up, away from zero. 
EXACT  
returns TRUE if two text strings are identical  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns TRUE if the text strings
text1 and text2 are exactly the same
(including case). 
EXP  
Returns the mathematical constant e raised to the power of a number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns e^{number}. 
EXPONDIST  
Calculates values for an exponential distribution.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
The exponential distribution is a continuous
probability distribution, with parameter λ (rate).
λ must be greater than zero. If mode is 0, EXPONDIST calculates the probability density function of the exponential distribution. If mode is 1, EXPONDIST calculates the cumulative distribution function of the exponential distribution. 
FACT  
Returns the factorial of a number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns number!, the factorial of
number, calculated as 1*2*3*4* ... * number. FACT(0) returns 1 by definition. 
FACTDOUBLE  
Returns the double factorial of a number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns number!!, the double
factorial of number, where number
is an integer greater than or equal to zero. For even numbers FACTDOUBLE(number) returns: 2*4*6*8* ... *number For odd numbers FACTDOUBLE(number) returns: 1*3*5*7* ... *number FACTDOUBLE(0) returns 1 by definition. 
FALSE  
Returns the logical value FALSE.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
The FALSE() function has no
arguments, and always returns the logical value FALSE. 
FDIST  
Calculates values for an Fdistribution.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
r1 and r2, which
are positive integers, are the degrees of freedom parameters for the
Fdistribution. x must be greater than or equal to 0. FDIST returns the area of the right tail of the probability density function for the Fdistribution. 
FIND  
Returns the position of a string of text within another string.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the character position of the first occurrence
of findtext within texttosearch. startposition (optional) is the position from which the search starts. The search is casesensitive. A failed search gives the #VALUE! error. 
FILTER  
Tests a given range and returns a filtered version that meets the specified conditions.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
range: The source range to be filtered. condition 1 to condition 30  The conditions used to filter out the given data range. 
FINV  
Calculates the inverse of the FDIST function.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the value x, such that
FDIST(x; r1; r2) is p. Parameters r1 and r2 (degrees of freedom) are positive integers. p must be greater than 0 and less than or equal to 1. 
FISHER  
Calculates values for the Fisher transformation.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the value of the Fisher transformation at
r, (1 < r < 1). 
FISHERINV  
Calculates the inverse of the FISHER transformation.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the value r, such that
FISHER(r) is z. 
FIXED  
Returns a number as text with a specified format.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns text representing number
with decimals decimal places. If
omitseparators (optional) is TRUE
thousands separators will be omitted. In the absence of
omitseparators thousands separators are included. 
FLOOR  
Returns a number rounded down to a multiple of another number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number is the number that is to be
rounded down to a multiple of mult. If mode is zero or omitted, FLOOR rounds down to the multiple below (more negative than or equal to) number. If mode is nonzero, FLOOR rounds down towards zero. 
FORECAST  
Fits a straight line to data using linear regression and returns a point on that line.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
yvalues and xvalues
are single row or column ranges specifying points in a set of data.
yvalues and xvalues must be the same size.
FORECAST fits a straight line through these data points, using the linear regression method. FORECAST returns the y value on the straight line found, corresponding to the x value in new_xvalue. 
FORMULA  
Returns the formula used in a cell as a text string.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the formula entered in the cell cell
as a text string. 
FREQUENCY  
Returns an array, categorising values of a data set into given intervals.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
data is a range or array containing
numerical data. bins is a single column range or array containing numbers in ascending order which are the upper limit of each category. FREQUENCY returns a single column array, where the first element is the count of values in data that are less than or equal to the first value in bins, the second value is the count of values in data that are greater than the first value but less than or equal to the second value in bins, and so on. The array returned is one element longer than bins; the last element contains the count of values in data that are greater than the last value in bins. 
FTEST  
Returns the result of an Ftest.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
data1 and data2
are ranges or arrays (possibly of different size) containing numbers,
on which the Ftest is performed. The Ftest calculates the likelihood
that two samples have the same variance. 
FV  
Returns the future value of an initial sum with a subsequent stream of payments.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
rate: the (fixed) interest rate per
period. numperiods: the total number of payment periods in the term. payment: the payment made each period. If presentvalue is given, this may omitted (defaults to 0). presentvalue: the lump sum payment at the start of the term (optional  defaults to 0). With a loan, this would normally be the sum borrowed; with a bond this would generally be 0. type: when payments are made (optional  defaults to 0): 0  at the end of each period. 1  at the start of each period (including a payment at the start of the term). 
FVSCHEDULE  
Returns the future value of a lump sum, with changing future interest rates.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
principal: the initial value of the
lump sum. interestrates: a range or array containing a schedule of interest rates which apply each period. 
GAMMA  
Returns the values of the Gamma function.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
x is a number. Constraint: If x is an integer, then x must be positive. 
GAMMADIST  
Calculates values for a gamma distribution.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
The gamma distribution is a family of continuous
probability distributions, with parameters α
(shape)
and β (scale). If mode is 0, GAMMADIST calculates the probability density function of the gamma distribution. If mode is 1, GAMMADIST calculates the cumulative distribution function of the gamma distribution. x must be greater than or equal to 0. 
GAMMAINV  
Calculates the inverse of the cumulative GAMMADIST function.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
The gamma distribution is a family of continuous
probability distributions, with two controlling parameters α
and β. GAMMAINV returns the value n, such that GAMMADIST(n; α; β; 1) is p. 
GAMMALN  
Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the natural logarithm of �“( x),
the gamma function. x must be greater than 0. 
GAUSS  
Returns a value in the standard normal cumulative distribution.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Where x is a number, returns
NORMSDIST(x)  0.5. 
GCD  
Returns the greatest common divisor of two or more integers.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
integer1 to integer30
are up to 30 integers or ranges of integers whose greatest common
divisor is to be calculated. The greatest common divisor (or highest common factor) is the largest positive integer which will divide, without remainder, each of the given integers. 
GEOMEAN  
Returns the geometric mean of the arguments.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number1 to number30
are up to 30 numbers or ranges containing numbers. Numbers must not be
zero. The geometric mean of a_{1}, a_{2}, ... a_{n} is defined as (a_{1} . a_{2}. ... . a_{n})^{1/n}. 
GESTEP  
Returns 1 if a number is greater than or equal to a step number, or 0 otherwise.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns 1 if number
is greater than or equal to stepnumber (both being
numbers). If stepnumber is omitted it is assumed to
be 0. 
GROWTH  
Fits an exponential curve to a data set, and returns points on that curve.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
data is a range or array containing
numerical data. yvalues and xvalues are single row or column ranges specifying points in a set of data. GROWTH fits an exponential curve of the form y=bm^{x} through these data points, using the linear regression method. If allow_factor is FALSE the factor b in this equation is set to 1; if allow_factor is nonzero, TRUE or omitted the factor b is calculated from the data. 
HARMEAN  
Returns the harmonic mean of the arguments.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number1 to number30
are up to 30 numbers or ranges containing numbers. Numbers must not be
zero. 
HEX2BIN  
Converts a hexadecimal number to binary.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns text representing a binary number, given
hexadecimalnumber, which may be text, or a number (taken to
be hexadecimal although it is not). The binary number returned may have up to ten bits in two's complement representation; positive numbers are 0 to 111111111 (nine bits representing 0 to 511 decimal) and negative numbers 1111111111 to 1000000000 (ten bits representing 1 to 512 decimal). hexadecimalnumber must therefore also lie in this range, and is given in two's complement form with up to ten digits. numdigits is an optional number specifying the number of digits to return. 
HEX2DEC  
Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns a (decimal) number, given
hexadecimalnumber, which may be text, or a number (taken to
be hexadecimal although it is not). hexadecimalnumber may have up to ten digits in two's complement representation; positive numbers are 0 to 7FFFFFFFFF (representing 0 to 2^{39}1 decimal) and negative numbers FFFFFFFFFF to 8000000000 (representing 1 to 2^{39} decimal). 
HEX2OCT  
Converts a hexadecimal number to octal.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns text representing an octal number, given
hexadecimalnumber, which may be text, or a number (taken to
be hexadecimal although it is not). The octal number returned may have up to ten digits in twos complement representation; positive numbers are 0 to 3777777777 octal and negative numbers 7777777777 to 4000000000 (a range of 2^{29} to 2^{29}1 decimal). hexadecimalnumber must therefore also lie in this range, and is given in twos complement form with up to ten digits. numdigits is an optional number specifying the number of digits to return. 
HLOOKUP  
Returns a value from a table row, in the column found by lookup in the first row.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
lookupvalue is a value (number,
text or logical value) to look up in the top row of the range/array
datatable. When a value is matched in the top row,
HLOOKUP returns the corresponding value (in the same column)
in the rowindex^{th} row of
datatable, where rowindex = 1 is the top
row. If mode is 0 or FALSE, the top row of datatable may be unordered, and the first exact match is found (searching left to right). If mode is 1 or TRUE, or is omitted, the top row of datatable must be sorted, with numbers in ascending order appearing before text values in alphabetic order. HLOOKUP decides where in the top row lookupvalue would appear. If there is an exact match, that is the column found; if there is more than one exact match, the column found is not necessarily the leftmost. If there is no exact match, the column to the left of where value would appear in the top row is found; the #N/A error results if that column is not in the table. 
HOUR  
Returns the hour of a given time.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the hour of time as a
number, 0  23. time may be text or a datetime serial number. 
HYPERLINK  
Sets a cell to open a hyperlink (in another application) when clicked.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
A cell containing a HYPERLINK
function will open a hyperlink when the cell is clicked. linkaddress is the address (as text) that is opened. celltext is the text displayed in the cell. If celltext is omitted, linkaddress is displayed in the cell. 
HYPGEOMDIST  
Calculates values for a hypergeometric distribution.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
The hypergeometric distribution is a discrete
probability distribution giving the probability of x
successes in a sequence of n draws (without
replacement) from a finite population of size N
which contains M successes. HYPGEOMDIST calculates the probability density function of the hypergeometric distribution. 
IF  
Returns one of two values, depending on a test condition.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
test is or refers to a logical
value or expression that returns a logical value ( TRUE
or FALSE). value1 is the value that is returned by the function if test yields TRUE. value2 is the value that is returned by the function if test yields FALSE. 
IFERROR  
Returns one of the two values, depending on a first value.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
value is the value that is checked whether the
value or an expression that returns an error. value is the value that is returned by the function if value yields not an ERROR. value_if_error is the value that is returned by the function if value yields an ERROR. 
IFS  
Tests a given range and returns a filtered version that meets the specified conditions.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
test1: The first logical value or expression to evaluate. value1: The value that is returned by the function if test1 yi elds true. test2... The second logical value or expression to evaluate. value2... The value that is returned by the function if test2 yields true. 
IMABS  
Returns the absolute value of a complex number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
complexnumber is text representing
a complex number, for example as a+bi
or a+bj. IMABS returns the absolute value or modulus of complexnumber  that is, in a polar representation, the distance from the origin. If complexnumber is a+bi, then the absolute value is √(a^{2} + b^{2}). 
IMAGINARY  
Returns the imaginary part of a complex number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
complexnumber is text representing
a complex number, for example as a+bi
or a+bj, where
a is the real part and b
the imaginary part. IMAGINARY returns the imaginary part as a number. 
IMARGUMENT  
Returns the argument of a complex number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
complexnumber is text representing
a complex number, for example as a+bi
or a+bj. IMARGUMENT returns the argument of complexnumber in radians  that is, in a polar representation, the angle relative to the horizontal axis. For a complex number a+bi = r(cosφ + isinφ) the argument is φ. 
IMCONJUGATE  
Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
complexnumber is text representing
a complex number, for example as a+bi
or a+bj. IMCONJUGATE returns the complex conjugate of complexnumber  that is, if complexnumber is a+bi, it returns abi, as text. 
IMCOS  
Returns the cosine of a complex number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
complexnumber is text representing
a complex number, for example as a+bi
or a+bj. IMCOS returns the cosine of complexnumber, as text  that is, if complexnumber is a+bi, it returns cos(a)cosh(b)sin(a)sinh(b)i. 
IMDIV  
Returns the result of dividing one complex number by another.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
complexnum1 and complexnum2
are text representing complex numbers, for example as a+bi
or a+bj. IMDIV returns complexnum1/complexnum2 as text. 
IMEXP  
Returns e to the power of a complex number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
complexnumber is text representing
a complex number, for example as a+bi
or a+bj. IMEXP returns the mathematical constant e raised to the power of complexnumber. The result is a complex number presented as text. If complexnumber is a+bi, IMEXP(complexnumber) returns e^{a+bi} = e^{a}(cosb+isinb). 
IMLN  
Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
complexnumber is text representing
a complex number, for example as a+bi
or a+bj. IMLN returns the natural logarithm of complexnumber as text. 
IMLOG10  
Returns the base10 logarithm of a complex number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
complexnumber is text representing
a complex number, for example as a+bi
or a+bj. IMLOG10 returns the base10 logarithm of complexnumber, as text. 
IMLOG2  
Returns the base2 logarithm of a complex number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
complexnumber is text representing
a complex number, for example as a+bi
or a+bj. IMLOG2 returns the base2 logarithm of complexnumber, as text. 
IMPOWER  
Returns a complex number raised to a power.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
complexnumber is text representing
a complex number, for example as a+bi
or a+bj.
number is a number. IMPOWER returns complexnumber raised to the power of number. The result is a complex number presented as text. If complexnumber is a+bi = r(cosφ + isinφ) and number is n, IMPOWER(complexnumber; number) returns (a+bi)^{n} = r^{n}cosφ + ir^{n}sinφ. 
IMPRODUCT  
Returns the product of complex numbers.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
complexnum1, complexnum2
... are complex numbers as text, or references to cells / cell ranges
containing complex numbers as text. IMPRODUCT returns complexnum1*complexnum2*... as text. 
IMREAL  
Returns the real part of a complex number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
complexnumber is text representing
a complex number, for example as a+bi
or a+bj, where
a is the real part and b
the imaginary part. IMREAL returns the real part as a number. 
IMSIN  
Returns the sine of a complex number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
complexnumber is text representing
a complex number, for example as a+bi
or a+bj. IMSIN returns the sine of complexnumber, as text  that is, if complexnumber is a+bi, it returns sin(a)cosh(b)cos(a)sinh(b)i. 
IMSQRT  
Returns the square root of a complex number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
complexnumber is text representing
a complex number, for example as a+bi
or a+bj. IMSQRT returns the square root of complexnumber as text. That is, if complexnumber is a_{0}+b_{0}i, it returns a_{1}+b_{1}i, such that ( a_{1}+b_{1}i) * ( a_{1}+b_{1}i) = a_{0}+b_{0}i. 
IMSUB  
Returns the difference between 2 complex numbers.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns complexnum1 
complexnum2, where complexnum1 and
complexnum2 are complex numbers as text, or references to
cells containing complex numbers as text. 
IMSUM  
Returns the sum of complex numbers.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
complexnum1, complexnum2,
... are complex numbers as text, or references to cells / cell ranges
containing complex numbers as text. 
INDEX  
Returns a value from a table, given a row and column number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the value at position row,
column in the range or array datatable. If datatable has multiple ranges then areanumber specifies which is to be used. areanumber is optional and defaults to 1. If datatable has a single column, this syntax may be used: INDEX(datatable; row) 
INDIRECT  
Returns a reference, given a text string.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
textref is a text string specifying
the reference to be returned; the reference may be to a single cell or
to a range. 

ref_type (optional) is a logical value that specifies the A1 or R1C1 reference style. 
INT  
Rounds a number down to the nearest integer.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns number rounded down to the
nearest integer. Negative numbers round down to the integer below: 1.3 rounds to 2. 
INTERCEPT  
Fits a straight line to data using linear regression and returns its intercept on the yaxis.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
yvalues and xvalues
are single row or column ranges specifying points in a set of data.
yvalues and xvalues must be the same size.
INTERCEPT fits a straight line through these data points, using the linear regression method (least squares). It then returns the y value where that straight line crosses the yaxis. 
INTRATE  
Returns the equivalent annual interest rate for an investment bought at one price and sold at another.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
settlementdate: the date the item
was bought. maturitydate: the date the item was sold. purchasevalue: the amount paid for the item. maturityvalue: the amount received for the item. basis: is chosen from a list of options and indicates how the year is to be calculated. Defaults to 0 if omitted. 0  US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each 1  Exact number of days in months, exact number of days in year 2  Exact number of days in month, year has 360 days 3  Exact number of days in month, year has 365 days 4  European method, 12 months of 30 days each 
IPMT  
Returns the portion of the periodic payment which is interest for a fixed rate loan or annuity.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
rate: the interest rate, per period. period: the period of the payment whose interest portion is to be calculated, numbered from 1. numperiods: the total number of payment periods in the term. presentvalue: the initial sum borrowed or invested. futurevalue: the cash balance you wish to attain at the end of the term (optional  defaults to 0). With a loan, this would normally be 0. type: when payments are made (optional  defaults to 0): 0  at the end of each period. 1  at the start of each period (including a payment at the start of the term). 
IRR  
Calculates the internal rate of return of a series of cash flows.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
payment is a range containing the
payments made or received, at regular intervals. guess (optional, defaults to 10%) is a first guess at the rate. IRR iterates to find the rate of return which gives a zero net present value for the cash flows. At least one of the cash flows must be negative and at least one positive  to allow the net present value to be zero. The rate of return is per period, and interest is compounded each period. The payments are assumed to arise at the start of each period; the order in which the payments are given is important. 
ISBLANK  
Tests if the cell is blank (empty).  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns TRUE if cell
is a blank (empty) cell, and FALSE otherwise. Cells
containing a formula or a error return FALSE. 
ISERR  
Tests for an error value other than #N/A.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns TRUE if value
refers to or evaluates to an error value other than the Not Available
error #N/A, and FALSE otherwise. Use the ISERROR function to test for any errors including #N/A. 
ISERROR  
Tests for any error value.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns TRUE if value
refers to or evaluates to any error value, including #N/A,
and FALSE otherwise. Use the ISERR function to test for any errors except #N/A. 
ISEVEN  
Returns TRUE if the value is an even number, or FALSE if the value is odd.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
value is the value to be checked. If value is not an integer any digits after the decimal point are ignored. The sign of value is also ignored. 
ISFORMULA  
Tests if a cell contains a formula.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns TRUE if cell
contains a formula and FALSE otherwise. 
ISLEAPYEAR  
Tests if a date is in a leap year.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns 1 if date
lies in a leap year, and 0 otherwise. 
ISLOGICAL  
Tests if a cell contains a logical value, TRUE or FALSE.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns TRUE if value
is either TRUE or FALSE, and
FALSE otherwise. 
ISNA  
Tests for the #N/A (Not Available) error value.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns TRUE if value
is or refers to the #N/A (Not Available) error and
FALSE otherwise. 
ISNONTEXT  
Tests if a cell contains no text.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns TRUE unless value
is or refers to text, in which case it returns FALSE. ISNONTEXT(value) is equivalent to NOT(ISTEXT(value)). 
ISNUMBER  
Tests if a cell contains a number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns TRUE if value
is a number or logical value and FALSE otherwise. 
ISODD  
Returns TRUE if the value is an odd number, or FALSE if the value is even.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
value is the value to be checked. If value is not an integer any digits after the decimal point are ignored. The sign of value is also ignored. 
ISPMT  
Returns the interest paid in a period for a fixed rate loan.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
rate: the interest rate per period. period: the period for which interest is to be calculated. numperiods: the total number of payment periods in the term. principal: the initial sum borrowed. 
ISREF  
Tests if the argument is a reference to a cell or range of cells.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns TRUE if value
is a reference to a cell or range of cells and FALSE
otherwise. 
ISTEXT  
Tests if a cell contains text.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns TRUE if value
is or refers to text, and FALSE otherwise. 
KURT  
Returns a measure of how peaked or flat a distribution is.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number1 to number30
are up to 30 numbers or ranges/arrays containing numbers. KURT returns the kurtosis, a measure of how peaked or flat a distribution is, relative to a normal distribution. Positive values indicate a relatively peaked distribution, and negative a relatively flat distribution. 
LARGE  
Returns the n^{th} largest value in a list of numbers.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the n^{th}
largest number within the (unordered) range or array of numbers
numberlist. 
LCM  
Returns the least common multiple of one or more integers.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
integer1 to integer30
are up to 30 integers or ranges of integers whose least common multiple
is to be calculated. The least common multiple (or lowest common multiple) is the smallest positive integer that is a multiple of all the given numbers. 
LEFT  
Returns text from the left side of a text string.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns number characters from the
left side of the text text. number defaults to 1 if omitted. 
LEN  
Returns the length of a text string.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the number of characters in the text
text, including spaces. 
LINEST  
Returns a table of statistics for a straight line that best fits a data set.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
yvalues is a single row or column
range specifying the y coordinates in a set of data
points. xvalues is a corresponding single row or column range specifying the x coordinates. If xvalues is omitted it defaults to 1, 2, 3, ..., n. If there is more than one set of variables xvalues may be a range with corresponding multiple rows or columns. LINEST finds a straight line y = a + bx that best fits the data, using linear regression (the "least squares" method). With more than one set of variables the straight line is of the form y = a + b_{1}x_{1} + b_{2}x_{2} ... + b_{n}x_{n}. If allow_const is FALSE the straight line found is forced to pass through the origin (the constant a is zero; y = bx). If omitted, allow_const defaults to TRUE (the line is not forced through the origin). If stats is omitted or FALSE only the top line of the statistics table is returned. If TRUE the entire table is returned. 
LN  
Returns the natural logarithm of a number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the natural logarithm (the logarithm to base e)
of number, that is the power of e
necessary to equal number. The mathematical constant e is approximately 2.71828182845904. 
LOG  
Returns the logarithm of a number to the specified base.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the logarithm to base base
of number. 
LOG10  
Returns the base10 logarithm of a number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the logarithm to base 10 of number. 
LOGEST  
Returns a table of statistics for an exponential curve that best fits a data set.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
yvalues is a single row or column
range specifying the y coordinates in a set of data
points. xvalues is a corresponding single row or column range specifying the x coordinates. If xvalues is omitted it defaults to 1, 2, 3, ..., n. If there is more than one set of x variables, xvalues may be a range with corresponding multiple rows or columns. LOGEST finds an exponential curve y = a . b^{x} that best fits the data. With more than one set of variables the curve is of the form y = a . b_{1}^{x1} . b_{2}^{x2} ... . b_{n}^{xn}. In order to fit the curve, LOGEST uses linear regression (the "least squares" method) based on the equation ln(y) = ln(a) + x_{1}ln(b_{1}) + x_{2}ln(b_{2}) + ... x_{n}ln(b_{n}). If allow_const is FALSE the constant a is forced to be one; y = b^{x}. If omitted, allow_const defaults to TRUE (a value for a is found). If stats is omitted or FALSE only the top line of the statistics table is returned. If TRUE the entire table is returned. 
LOGINV  
Calculates the inverse of the LOGNORMDIST function.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
A variable is lognormally distributed if its natural
logarithm is normally distributed. Parameters of the distribution are μ
(mean) and σ
(standard deviation). LOGINV returns the value x, such that LOGNORMDIST(x; μ; σ) is p. 
LOGNORMDIST  
Calculates values for the cumulative distribution function of a lognormal distribution.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
A variable is lognormally distributed if its natural
logarithm is normally distributed. Parameters of the distribution are
μ (mean) and σ
(standard deviation). LOGNORMDIST calculates the cumulative density function for a lognormal distribution. 
LOOKUP  
Returns a value from a singlecellwide table, in a position found by lookup in another table.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
lookupvalue is a value (number,
text or logical value) to look up in the single row or single column
range/array searchtable. searchtable
must be sorted, with numbers in ascending order appearing before text
values in alphabetic order. resulttable is a range/array of the same size as searchtable. LOOKUP returns the value in resulttable in the position where the match was found in searchtable. LOOKUP decides where in searchtable lookupvalue would appear. If there is an exact match, that is the position found; if there is more than one exact match, the position found is not necessarily the leftmost/ topmost. If there is no exact match, the position just before where lookupvalue would appear is found; the #N/A error results if that position is not in searchtable. 
LOWER  
Converts a text string to lowercase.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns text with all characters
converted to lower case. 
MATCH  
Returns the position of a search item in a single row or column table.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
searchitem is the value to be found
within the single row or single column range searchregion. If matchtype is 1 or omitted, searchregion is assumed to be sorted in ascending order. MATCH then returns the position of the largest value in searchregion that is less than or equal to searchitem. If matchtype is 1, searchregion is assumed to be sorted in descending order. MATCH then returns the position of the smallest value in searchregion that is greater than or equal to searchitem. If matchtype is 0, MATCH returns the position of the first exact match. searchregion may be unsorted. If the search fails, MATCH returns the #N/A error. 
MAX  
Returns the maximum of a list of arguments, ignoring text entries.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number1 to number30
are up to 30 numbers or ranges containing numbers. 
MAXA  
Returns the maximum of a list of arguments, including text and logical entries.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
value1 to value30
are up to 30 values or ranges, which may include numbers, text and
logical values. Text is evaluated as 0. Logical
values are evaluated as 1 ( TRUE)
and 0 ( FALSE). 
MAXIFS  
Returns the maximum of a list of arguments, including text and logical entries.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
range: The source range to find the maximum value. criteria_range1: The criteria range to apply the criterions. criterion1: The conditions used to filter out the given criteria range. criteria_range2 to criteria_range30 (optional) The criteria range to apply the criterions. criterion2: to criterion30 (optional)The conditions used to filter out the given criteria range. 
MDETERM  
Returns the determinant of a matrix.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the determinant of the square matrix array, which may be either an inline array or a range, containing all numbers. 
MDURATION  
Returns the modified Macaulay duration of a security.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
settlementdate: the settlement
(purchase) date of the bond. maturitydate: the maturity (redemption) date of the bond. rate: the (annual) interest rate of the bond. yield: the (annual) yield of the bond. frequency: the number of interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). basis: is the calendar system to use. Defaults to 0 if omitted. 0  US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each 1  Actual number of days in months, actual number of days in year 2  Actual number of days in month, year has 360 days 3  Actual number of days in month, year has 365 days 4  European method, 12 months of 30 days each 
MEDIAN  
Returns the median of a set of numbers.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number1 to number30
are up to 30 numbers or ranges containing numbers. MEDIAN returns the median (middle value) of the numbers. If the count of numbers is odd, this is the exact middle value. If the count of numbers is even, the average of the two middle values is returned. 
MID  
Returns text from the middle of a text string.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns number characters from the
text text, starting at position start. 
MIN  
Returns the minimum of a list of arguments, ignoring text entries.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number1 to number30
are up to 30 numbers or ranges containing numbers. 
MINA  
Returns the minimum of a list of arguments, including text and logical entries.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
value1 to value30
are up to 30 values or ranges, which may include numbers, text and
logical values. Text is evaluated as 0. Logical
values are evaluated as 1 ( TRUE)
and 0 ( FALSE). 
MINIFS  
Returns the minimum value from a given list of arguments, based on the specified conditions.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
range: The source range to find the minimum value. criteria_range1: The criteria range to apply the criterions. criterion1: The conditions used to filter out the given criteria range. criteria_range2...: (optional) The criteria range to apply the criterions. criterion2... : (optional) The conditions used to filter out the given criteria range. 
MINUTE  
Returns the minutes of a given time.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the minutes of time as a
number, 0  59. time may be text or a datetime serial number. 
MINVERSE  
Returns the inverse of a matrix.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the inverse of the square matrix array,
which may be either an inline array or a range, containing all numbers. A matrix has an inverse if and only if its determinant is not zero. 
MIRR  
Returns the modified internal rate of return of a series of cash flows.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
payment is a range containing the
payments made or received, at regular intervals. financerate is the rate of interest you pay per period on outstanding balances. reinvestrate is the rate of interest you receive per period on invested balances. At least one of the payments must be negative and at least one positive. The payments are assumed to arise at the start of each period; the order in which the payments are given is important. 
MMULT  
Returns the ordinary product of two matrices.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Multiplies array1 and
array2, and returns the matrix result. array1
and array2 may each be either an inline array or a
range, containing all numbers. The number of columns in array1 must be the same as the number of rows in array2. MMULT returns an array with the same number of rows as array1 and the same number of columns as array2. 
MOD  
Returns the remainder when one integer is divided by another.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
For integer arguments this function returns
number modulo divisor, that is the
remainder when number is divided by
divisor. This function is implemented as number  divisor * INT( number/divisor) , and this formula gives the result if the arguments are not integer. 
MODE  
Returns the most common value in a set of numbers.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number1 to number30
are up to 30 numbers or ranges/arrays containing numbers. MODE returns the number that occurs most often, or if more than one number occurs that many times, the smallest such number. If no number occurs more than once, MODE returns an error. 
MONTH  
Returns the month of a given date.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the month of date as a
number, where January is 1 and December is
12. date may be text or a datetime serial number. 
MONTHS  
Returns the number of months between two dates.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
If mode is 0,
MONTHS returns the number of whole months between
startdate and enddate, day of the month to
day of the month (see examples). If mode is 1, MONTHS identifies the month that startdate and enddate each lie in, and returns the difference between those months. In other words it returns MONTH(enddate)  MONTH(startdate) + 12 * (YEAR(enddate)  YEAR(startdate)). If startdate is after enddate the result will be negative. 
MROUND  
Returns a number rounded to the nearest multiple of another number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns number rounded to the
nearest multiple of mult, that is to mult
times an integer. An alternative implementation would be mult * ROUND(number/mult). 
MULTINOMIAL  
Returns the factorial of the sum of the arguments divided by the product of the factorials of the arguments.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number1 to number30
are up to 30 numbers or ranges of numbers. This function returns: ( number1 + number2 + ... + number30 )! / (number1! * number2! * ...* number30!) 
MUNIT  
Returns a unit (identity) matrix of a given size.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the unit matrix, also known as the identity
matrix I, of size size (an
integer greater than zero). The identity matrix has ones on the leading diagonal, and zeroes elsewhere. 
N  
Returns the numeric value.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the numeric value of value
if possible. It returns the logical values TRUE and
FALSE as 1 and 0
respectively. N() is not intended to convert text to a number  use the VALUE() function instead. 
NA  
Returns the #N/A (Not Available) error value.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
This function has no arguments, and returns the error
value #N/A. 
NEGBINOMDIST  
Calculates probabilities for a negative binomial distribution.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
For independent trials each with a probability
p of success, NEGBINOMDIST returns the
probability that there will be exactly x failures
before there have been r successes. 
NETWORKDAYS  
Returns the number of workdays between two dates.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the number of workdays between
startdate and enddate (inclusive). Saturday and Sunday are assumed to be nonworking days. hols_range (optional) is a range containing dates of other nonworking days. 
NOMINAL  
Returns a nominal interest rate given the effective compounded interest rate.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
eff_rate: the effective interest
rate. num: the number of times interest is credited / compounded during the period that the nominal rate applies to. If an investment has a nominal rate, say for a year, but interest is paid and credited say each quarter, the interest paid each quarter will itself start earning interest. This increases the effective value. The effective rate is the rate that would have to be paid at the end of the (say) year to give the same return. Given an effective rate, this function returns the appropriate nominal rate. 
NORMDIST  
Calculates values for a normal distribution.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
The normal distribution is an often encountered family
of continuous probability distributions, with parameters μ
(mean) and σ
(standard deviation). If mode is 0, NORMDIST calculates the probability density function of the normal distribution. If mode is 1, NORMDIST calculates the cumulative distribution function of the normal distribution. 
NORMINV  
Calculates the inverse of the cumulative NORMDIST normal distribution function.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
The normal distribution is a family of continuous
probability distributions, with two controlling parameters α
and λ. NORMINV returns the value n, such that NORMDIST(n; α; λ; 1) is p. 
NORMSDIST  
Calculates values for the cumulative distribution function of a normal distribution.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
The standard normal distribution is a normal
distribution with mean μ = 0 and standard deviation
�ƒ = 1. NORMSDIST calculates the cumulative distribution function of the standard normal distribution. It is equivalent to NORMDIST(x; 0; 1; 1). 
NORMSINV  
Calculates the inverse of the NORMSDIST function.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
NORMSINV returns the value
x, such that NORMSDIST(x) is p.
It is equivalent to NORMINV(p; 0; 1). 
NOT  
Reverses the logical value. Returns TRUE if the argument is FALSE, and FALSE if the argument is TRUE.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Where logical_value is the logical
value to be reversed. 
NOW  
Returns the current date and time  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the current date and time (as a datetime
serial number). NOW is updated at every
recalculation, for instance if a cell is modified. 
NPER  
Returns the number of payment periods for an annuity.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
rate: the (fixed) interest rate per
period. payment: the payment made each period. presentvalue: the lump sum payment at the start of the term. futurevalue: the cash balance paid at the end of the term (optional  defaults to 0). type: when payments are made (optional  defaults to 0): 0  at the end of each period. 1  at the start of each period (including a payment at the start of the term). 
NPV  
Returns the net present value of an investment with regular cash payments.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
payment1 to payment30
are up to 30 numbers or ranges containing numbers, representing
payments made at the end of each of a series of fixed length periods.
The payments may be both positive and negative, for income and outgoing. discountrate is the discount rate (expressed as a fraction of 1) which you consider applies to one single period. It is assumed to be constant for all periods. 
OCT2BIN  
Converts a octal number to binary.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns text representing a binary number, given
octalnumber, which may be text, or a number (taken to be
octal although it is not). The binary number returned may have up to ten bits in two's complement representation; positive numbers are 0 to 111111111 (nine bits representing 0 to 511 decimal) and negative numbers 1111111111 to 1000000000 (ten bits representing 1 to 512 decimal). octalnumber must therefore also lie in this range, and is given in twos complement form with up to ten digits. numdigits is an optional number specifying the number of digits to return. 
OCT2DEC  
Converts an octal number to decimal.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns a (decimal) number, given octalnumber,
which may be text, or a number (taken to be octal although it is not). octalnumber may have up to ten digit in twos complement representation; positive numbers are 0 to 3777777777 (representing 0 to 2^{29}1 decimal) and negative numbers 7777777777 to 4000000000 (representing 1 to 2^{29} decimal). 
OCT2HEX  
Converts a octal number to hexadecimal.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns text representing a hexadecimal number, given
octalnumber, which may be text, or a number containing only
digits 0 to 7 (thus the number appears to be octal although it is not). octalnumber may have up to ten digit in twos complement representation; positive numbers are 0 to 3777777777 (representing 0 to 2^{29}1 decimal) and negative numbers 7777777777 to 4000000000 (representing 1 to 2^{29} decimal). numdigits is an optional number specifying the number of digits to return. If octalnumber is negative, OCT2HEX returns ten octal digits, representing the octal number in twos complement form. 
ODD  
Rounds a number up, away from zero, to the next odd integer.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns number rounded to the next
odd integer up, away from zero. 
ODDFPRICE  
Returns the value of a security per 100 currency units of face value, where the time to the first interest payment is not a whole period.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
settlementdate: the settlement
(purchase) date of the security. maturitydate: the maturity date of the security. issuedate: the issue date of the security. firstinterestdate: the date on which the security first pays interest. rate: the interest rate of the security. yield: the annual yield of the security. redemptionvalue: the redemption value of the security per 100 currency units of face value. frequency: number of interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). basis: is the calendar system to use. Defaults to 0 if omitted. 0  US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each 1  Actual number of days in months, actual number of days in year 2  Actual number of days in month, year has 360 days 3  Actual number of days in month, year has 365 days 4  European method, 12 months of 30 days each 
ODDFYIELD  
Returns the yield of a security, where the time to the first interest payment is not a whole period.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
settlementdate: the settlement
(purchase) date of the security. maturitydate: the maturity date of the security. issuedate: the issue date of the security. firstinterestdate: the date on which the security first pays interest. rate: the interest rate of the security. price: the price of the security. redemptionvalue: the redemption value of the security per 100 currency units of face value. frequency: number of interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). basis: is the calendar system to use. Defaults to 0 if omitted. 0  US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each 1  Actual number of days in months, actual number of days in year 2  Actual number of days in month, year has 360 days 3  Actual number of days in month, year has 365 days 4  European method, 12 months of 30 days each 
ODDLPRICE  
Returns the value of a security per 100 currency units of face value, where the last interest payment is not a whole period.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
settlementdate: the settlement
(purchase) date of the security. maturitydate: the maturity date of the security. lastinterestdate: the date on which the security last pays interest. rate: the interest rate of the security. yield: the annual yield of the security. redemptionvalue: the redemption value of the security per 100 currency units of face value. frequency: number of interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). basis: is the calendar system to use. Defaults to 0 if omitted. 0  US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each 1  Actual number of days in months, actual number of days in year 2  Actual number of days in month, year has 360 days 3  Actual number of days in month, year has 365 days 4  European method, 12 months of 30 days each 
ODDLYIELD  
Returns the yield of a security, where the last interest payment is not a whole period.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
settlementdate: the settlement
(purchase) date of the security. maturitydate: the maturity date of the security. lastinterestdate: the date on which the security last pays interest. rate: the interest rate of the security. price: the price of the security. redemptionvalue: the redemption value of the security per 100 currency units of face value. frequency: number of interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). basis: is the calendar system to use. Defaults to 0 if omitted. 0  US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each 1  Actual number of days in months, actual number of days in year 2  Actual number of days in month, year has 360 days 3  Actual number of days in month, year has 365 days 4  European method, 12 months of 30 days each 
OFFSET  
Returns a modified reference, given a reference, an offset, and a desired size.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
reference is the given reference,
which may be a range. row_offset and col_offset are the number of rows / columns to move reference down / right by. Negative numbers are allowed. new_height and new_width set the height and width of the new reference, by adjusting the bottom right corner. These are optional parameters. 
OR  
Returns TRUE if any of the arguments are considered TRUE, and FALSE otherwise.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
PEARSON  
Returns the Pearson correlation coefficient of two sets of data.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Where x and y
are ranges or arrays containing the two sets of data. Any text or empty entries are ignored. 
PERCENTILE  
Returns a specified percentile in a list of numbers.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
PERCENTILE returns the value below
which fraction of the numbers in numberlist
lie. fraction must be between 0 and 1 inclusive. numberlist is a range or array of numbers, not necessarily in order.. PERCENTILE internally assigns a rank to each number in numberlist, where 0 is the rank of the lowest number, 1 of the next lowest and so on. The rank r of the value to be found is fraction * (N1), where N is the count of numbers in numberlist. If r is integer the corresponding value from numberlist is returned; otherwise the value is calculated proportionately between the values with rank r and r+1. This function may be useful for example when determining a score below which lies a certain percentage of all scores for a test. PERCENTILE returns the maximum, median, minimum value when fraction is 1, 0.5, 0 respectively. 
PERCENTRANK  
Returns the percentage rank of a number in a list of numbers.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number is the number whose
percentage rank is to be found within the unordered range or array of
numbers numberlist. PERCENTRANK internally assigns a rank r to number, where 0 is the rank of the lowest number, 1 of the next lowest and so on. If number is not in numberlist, it is assigned a fractional rank proportionately between the rank of the numbers on either side (see the examples). Where N is the count of numbers in numberlist, PERCENTRANK returns r / (N1), which is a fraction between 0 and 1 inclusive. It may be useful for example when determining where a score lies within all scores for a test, in which case the formula returned can be stated as L / (N1), where L is the count of scores which are lower than number. 
PERMUT  
Returns the number of ordered permutations for a given number of objects.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Where n and k
are integers. PERMUT returns the number of ordered ways that k objects can be chosen from a set of n objects, where an object can only be chosen once. For example with a set of 3 objects A, B, C, we can choose 2 as follows: AB, AC, BA, BC, CA, CB. 
PERMUTATIONA  
Returns the number of ordered permutations, allowing repetition.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Where n and k
are integers. PERMUTATIONA returns the number of ordered ways that k objects can be chosen from a set of n objects, where an object can be chosen repeatedly. For example with a set of 3 objects A, B, C, we can choose 2 as follows: AA, AB, AC, BA, BB, BC, CA, CB, CC. PERMUTATIONA simply calculates n^{k}. 
PHI  
Calculates values for a standard normal distribution.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
The standard normal distribution is a normal
distribution with mean μ = 0 and standard deviation
�ƒ = 1. PHI calculates the probability density function of the standard normal distribution; in other words it returns NORMDIST(x; 0; 1; 0). 
PI  
Returns 3.14159265358979, the value of the mathematical constant PI to 14 decimal places.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
PMT  
Returns the payment per period for a fixed rate loan.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
rate: the interest rate per period. numperiods: the total number of payment periods in the term. principal: the initial sum borrowed. finalbalance: the cash balance you wish to attain at the end of the term (optional  defaults to 0). With a loan, this would normally be 0. type: when payments are made (optional  defaults to 0): 0  at the end of each period. 1  at the start of each period (including a payment at the start of the term). 
POISSON  
Calculates values for a Poisson distribution.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
The Poisson distribution is a discrete probability
distribution giving the probability that x events
occur in a certain time, where events occur independently, and where on
average λ events are expected. x
should be >=0 and λ should be >0.
x should be integer. If mode is 0, POISSON calculates the probability density function of the Poisson distribution. If mode is 1, POISSON calculates the cumulative distribution function of the Poisson distribution. 
POWER  
Returns a number raised to a power.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns number^{power},
that is number raised to the power of power. The same result may be achieved by using the exponentiation operator ^: number^power 
PPMT  
Returns the portion of the periodic payment which is repaid capital for a fixed rate loan or annuity.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
rate: the interest rate per period. period: the period of the payment whose repaid capital portion is to be calculated, numbered from 1. numperiods: the total number of payment periods in the term. presentvalue: the initial sum borrowed or invested. futurevalue: the cash balance you wish to attain at the end of the term (optional  defaults to 0). With a loan, this would normally be 0. type: when payments are made (optional  defaults to 0): 0  at the end of each period. 1  at the start of each period (including a payment at the start of the term). 
PRICE  
Calculates a quoted price for an interest paying security, per 100 currency units par value.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
settlementdate: the settlement
(purchase) date of the security. maturitydate: the maturity (redemption) date of the security. rate: the (annual) coupon rate of the security. yield: the required annual rate of return (compounded at each interest payment). redemptionvalue: the redemption value of the security, per 100 par value. frequency: number of interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). basis: is the calendar system to use. Defaults to 0 if omitted. 0  US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each 1  Actual number of days in months, actual number of days in year 2  Actual number of days in month, year has 360 days 3  Actual number of days in month, year has 365 days 4  European method, 12 months of 30 days each 
PRICEDISC  
Calculates a price for a noninterest paying discounted bond.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
settlementdate: the settlement
(purchase) date of the bond. maturitydate: the maturity (redemption) date of the bond. discountrate: the (annual) discount rate of the bond. redemptionvalue: the redemption value of the bond, per 100 par value. basis: is the calendar system to use. Defaults to 0 if omitted. 0  US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each 1  Actual number of days in months, actual number of days in year 2  Actual number of days in month, year has 360 days 3  Actual number of days in month, year has 365 days 4  European method, 12 months of 30 days each 
PRICEMAT  
Calculates a price (per 100 currency units par value) for a bond that pays interest on maturity.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
settlementdate: the settlement
(purchase) date of the bond. maturitydate: the maturity (redemption) date of the bond. issuedate: the original issue date of the bond. rate: the (annual) interest rate of the bond (interest only paid at maturity). yield: the (annual) yield of the bond. basis: is the calendar system to use. Defaults to 0 if omitted. 0  US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each 1  Actual number of days in months, actual number of days in year 2  Actual number of days in month, year has 360 days 3  Actual number of days in month, year has 365 days 4  European method, 12 months of 30 days each 
PROB  
Returns a result from a list of probabilities.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
values is a range or array of
numbers (possibly unordered). probabilities is a range or array of numbers of the same size as values, indicating the corresponding probability (>0 and <=1) that each value in values will occur. The numbers in probabilities must sum to 1 exactly. PROB finds all values which are between start and end inclusive and returns the sum of their corresponding probabilities. end may be omitted, in which case PROB returns the probability corresponding to start (or 0 if start is not present in values). 
PRODUCT  
Multiplies all the numbers given as arguments and returns the product.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number1 to number30
are up to 30 numbers or ranges/arrays of numbers whose product is to be
calculated. PRODUCT returns number1 * number2 * number3 * ........ PRODUCT ignores any text or empty cell within a range or array. 
PROPER  
returns text with words in lowercase after a capitalised first letter.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns text with the first
character of each word capitalised, and other characters in lower case. 
PV  
Returns the present value of a stream of future payments with a final lump sum.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
rate: the (fixed) interest rate per
period. numperiods: the total number of payment periods in the term. payment: the payment made each period. If futurevalue is given, this may omitted (defaults to 0). futurevalue: the cash balance you wish to attain at the end of the term (optional  defaults to 0). With a loan, this would normally be 0; with a bond this would be the redemption value. type: when payments are made (optional  defaults to 0): 0  at the end of each period. 1  at the start of each period (including a payment at the start of the term). 
QUARTILE  
Returns a specified quartile in a list of numbers.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
QUARTILE returns the value below
which q quarters of the numbers in
numberlist lie. q may be 0 (to return the
minimum value), 1 (to return the value below which a quarter of values
lie), 2 (to return the median value), 3 (to return the value below
which three quarters of values lie) or 4 (to return the maximum value).
numberlist is a range or array of numbers, not necessarily in
order. 
QUOTIENT  
Returns the integer part of a division operation.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the integer part of numerator
divided by denominator. QUOTIENT is equivalent to INT(numerator/denominator), except that it may report errors with different error codes. 
RADIANS  
Converts degrees to radians.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
degrees is the angle in degrees to
be converted to radians. 
RAND  
Returns a random number between 0 and 1.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
This function produces a new random number each time
Calc recalculates, greater than or equal to 0, and less than 1. 
RANDARRAY  
Returns an array of random values in the given cell range. The minimum, maximum and type of values to be returned can also be specified.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
row : Number of rows to be filled with the random array. Defaults to 1 if omitted. column : Number of columns to be filled with the sequential array. Defaults to 1 if omitted. min : The lowest value you want in the array. max : The highest value you want in the array. type : Logical expression that specifies the type of value to return. If TRUE, the function returns whole numbers. If FALSE, the function returns decimal numbers. 
RANDBETWEEN  
Returns an integer random number in a specified range.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns an integer random number between integers
bottom and top (both inclusive). This function produces a new random number each time Calc recalculates. 
RANK  
Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the rank of number within
the unordered range or array of numbers numberlist. If order is zero or omitted, numbers are ranked with the highest being first; if order is nonzero, numbers are ranked with the lowest being first. An error results if number is not present in numberlist. 
RANK.AVG  
Returns the rank of a given number from the specified list of numbers. If the number occurs more than once in the list, the average rank is returned.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number :The number whose rank is to be found. number_list :The data set to test. order :Determines the order of ranking. Defaults to 0 if omitted. If 0, the given list is considered to be sorted in the descending order. For any nonzero number, the list is considered to be sorted in the ascending order. 
RANK.EQ  
Returns the rank of a given number from the specified list of numbers. If the number occurs more than once in the list, the top rank is returned.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number :The number whose rank is to be found. number_list :The data set to test. order :Determines the order of ranking. Defaults to 0 if omitted. If 0, the given list is considered to be sorted in the descending order. For any nonzero number, the list is considered to be sorted in the ascending order. 
RATE  
Calculates the interest rate for an annuity.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
rate: the (fixed) interest rate per
period. numperiods: the total number of payment periods in the term. payment: the payment made each period. If futurevalue is given, this may omitted (defaults to 0). presentvalue: the lump sum payment at the start of the term. futurevalue: the cash balance you wish to attain at the end of the term (optional  defaults to 0). type: when payments are made (optional  defaults to 0): 0  at the end of each period. 1  at the start of each period (including a payment at the start of the term). guess: an optional guess of the interest rate (defaults to 10%). 
RECEIVED  
Calculates the amount received at maturity for a zero coupon  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
settlementdate: the settlement
(purchase) date of the bond. maturitydate: the maturity (redemption) date of the bond. purchasevalue: the value of the bond at purchase. discountrate: the discount rate of the bond. basis: is the calendar system to use. Defaults to 0 if omitted. 0  US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each 1  Actual number of days in months, actual number of days in year 2  Actual number of days in month, year has 360 days 3  Actual number of days in month, year has 365 days 4  European method, 12 months of 30 days each 
REPLACE  
Replaces part of a text string with a different text string.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
In originaltext, removes
length characters beginning at character
startposition, replaces them with newtext,
and returns the result. startposition and length must be 1 or more. 
REPT  
returns a text string comprised of copies of another text string.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns number copies of
text, joined together. 
RIGHT  
Returns text from the right side of a text string.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns number characters from the
right side of the text text. number defaults to 1 if omitted. 
ROMAN  
Returns a Roman numeral (eg XIV), as text, given a number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number is a number in the range
13999 that is to be converted into a Roman numeral. mode (optional, in the range 04) indicates the degree of simplification. The higher the value, the greater is the simplification of the Roman number. 
ROUND  
Rounds a number to a certain precision.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns number rounded to
places decimal places. If places is
omitted or zero, the function rounds to the nearest integer. If
places is negative, the function rounds to the nearest
10, 100, 1000, etc. This function rounds to the nearest number. 
ROUNDDOWN  
Rounds a number down, toward zero, to a certain precision.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns number rounded down
(towards zero) to places decimal places. If
places is omitted or zero, the function rounds down to an
integer. If places is negative, the function rounds
down to the next 10, 100,
1000, etc. This function rounds towards zero. 
ROUNDUP  
Rounds a number up, away from zero, to a certain precision.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns number rounded up (away
from zero) to places decimal places. If
places is omitted or zero, the function rounds up to an
integer. If places is negative, the function rounds
up to the next 10, 100,
1000, etc. This function rounds away from zero. 
ROW  
Returns the row number(s), given a reference.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the row number of reference,
where reference is a reference to a cell. If reference is omitted, the row number of the current cell (containing the formula) is returned. 
ROWS  
Returns the number of rows in a given reference.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
reference may be given either explicitly (eg A3:B5) or by name (eg myref). 
RRI  
Returns an equivalent interest rate when an investment increases in value.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
numperiods: the number of periods
in the term. presentvalue: the value at the start of the term. futurevalue: the value at the end of the term. RRI calculates the fixed interest rate needed, so that presentvalue invested for numperiods (and compounded each period) is worth futurevalue at the end of the term. RRI returns a fixed interest rate which applies to each period. 
RSQ  
Returns the square of the Pearson correlation coefficient of two sets of data.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Where x and y
are ranges or arrays containing the two sets of data. Any text or empty entries are ignored. RSQ calculates the square of the Pearson correlation coefficient (which is conventionally given the letter r, hence "r squared"). 
SEARCH  
Returns the position of a string of text within another string.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the character position of the first occurrence
of findtext within texttosearch. startposition (optional) is the position from which the search starts. The search is not casesensitive. A failed search gives the #VALUE! error. 
SECOND  
Returns the seconds of a given time.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the seconds of time as a
number, 0  59. time may be text or a datetime serial number. 
SEQUENCE  
Reurns a list of sequential numbers as an array in the provided cell range.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
row : Number of rows to be filled with the sequential array. column : Number of columns to be filled with the sequential array. first_value : The starting or first value in the sequence. Defaults to 1 if omitted. step : Value by which each value in the sequence increments. 
SERIESSUM  
Sums the first terms of a power series.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
x is the variable, n is the power of x for the first term, m is the increment by which the power of x increases with each term, and ar refers to a range containing the a coefficients of the terms to be included. 
SHEET  
Returns the sheet number, given a reference.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the sheet number of reference,
where reference is a reference to a cell. If reference is omitted, the sheet number of the current sheet (containing the formula) is returned. 
SIGN  
Returns the sign of a number: 1 if the number is positive, 1 if negative and 0 if zero.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number is the number whose sign is
to be determined. 
SIN  
Returns the sine of the given angle (in radians).  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the (trigonometric) sine of angle,
the angle in radians. To return the sine of an angle in degrees, use the RADIANS function. 
SINH  
Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the hyperbolic sine of number. 
SKEW  
Returns a measure of how skewed a distribution is.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number1 to number30
are up to 30 numbers or ranges/arrays containing numbers. SKEW returns a measure of how skewed a distribution is, relative to a normal distribution  that is, how asymmetric it is. Positive values indicate a distribution with a tail inclining to the positive side, and negative values a distribution with a tail inclining to the negative side. 
SLN  
Returns the depreciation of an asset in a single period using the straightline depreciation method.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
originalcost: the initial cost of
the asset. salvagevalue: is the value at the end of the depreciation (sometimes called the salvage value of the asset). lifetime: the number of periods (commonly years) over which the asset is being depreciated. The straightline depreciation method depreciates the asset by the same constant value every period; that value is returned by the SLN function. 
SLOPE  
Fits a straight line to data using linear regression and returns its slope.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
yvalues and xvalues
are single row or column ranges specifying points in a set of data.
yvalues and xvalues must be the same size.
SLOPE fits a straight line through these data points, using the linear regression method (least squares). It then returns the slope of that line. 
SMALL  
Returns the n^{th} smallest value in a list of numbers.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the n^{th}
smallest number within the (unordered) range or array of numbers
numberlist. 
SORT  
Sorts a given array or range of values based on the specified criteria. It is a dynamic array function, where the result array may increase or decrease in size based on the source range.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
range :The range containing the array of values to sort. sort_by :Number indicating the row or column to sort the range by. order :Indicates the order in which the range should be sorted. If 1, the range is sorted in ascending order If 1, the range is sorted in descending order direction :Logical expression that specifies direction of sort. Defaults to FALSE if omitted. If TRUE, sorts by column If FALSE, sorts by row 
SORTBY  
Sorts a given array or range of values based on a corresponding array or range, and the specified criteria. It is a dynamic array function, where the result array may increase or decrease in size based on the source range.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
range :The range containing the array of values to sort. by_range :The range containing the array of values to sort the range by. order :Indicates the order in which the range should be sorted. If 1, the range is sorted in ascending order If 1, the range is sorted in descending order 
SQRT  
Returns the positive square root of a number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the positive square root of number. number must be positive. 
SQRTPI  
Returns the square root of (PI times a number).  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the positive square root of ( PI
multiplied by number ). This is equivalent to SQRT(PI()*number). 
STANDARDIZE  
Converts a value in a normal distribution to its equivalent in a standard normal distribution.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
n is a number in a normal
distribution with known mean μ and known standard
deviation σ. STANDARDIZE converts n to a corresponding value in a standard normal distribution, which has mean 0 and standard deviation 1. 
STDEV  
Returns the sample standard deviation of the arguments.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number1 to number30
are up to 30 numbers or ranges containing numbers. STDEV returns the standard deviation where number1 to number30 are a sample of the entire population. . 
STDEVA  
Returns the sample standard deviation of the arguments.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number1 to number30
are up to 30 numbers or ranges containing numbers. Logical values and
text may also be included. STDEVA returns the standard deviation where number1 to number30 are a sample of the entire population. Logical values are regarded as 1 ( TRUE) and 0 ( FALSE). Text values are always regarded as zero.. 
STDEVP  
Returns the population standard deviation.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number1 to number30
are up to 30 numbers or ranges containing numbers. STDEVP returns the standard deviation where number1 to number30 are the entire population. If you only have a sample of the population use STDEV instead. . 
STDEVPA  
Returns the population standard deviation (allowing text and logical values).  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number1 to number30
are up to 30 numbers or ranges containing numbers. Logical values and
text may also be included. STDEVPA returns the standard deviation where number1 to number30 are the entire population. If you only have a sample of the population use STDEVA instead. Logical values are regarded as 1 ( TRUE) and 0 ( FALSE). Text values are always regarded as zero.. 
STEYX  
Fits a straight line to data using linear regression and returns the standard error of y values.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
yvalues and xvalues
are single row or column ranges specifying points in a set of data.
yvalues and xvalues must be the same size.
STEYX in effect fits a straight line through these data points, using the linear regression method (least squares). It then returns the standard error of actual y values compared to y values on the straight line found. 
STOCK  
Currently available for US Exchanges only  
Returns the stock details for the symbol provided.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Symbol: The stock symbol of the company. Function(Optional) : The type of data. Defaults to the price value when omitted. Example: =STOCK("GOOG","PRICE"), =STOCK("MSFT"), =STOCK("AAPL","VOLUME") Supported Functions price  price of stock. tradetime  last traded time of stock in PST. dayopen  price when the current day open. dayhigh  highest traded price for the current day. daylow  lowest traded price for the current day. volume  volume of shares traded for the day. close  price at previous day close. change  %change from previous day close. 52weekhigh  highest price in last 52 weeks. 52weeklow  lowest price in last 52 weeks. Note: The data provided is for informational purpose only and may be delayed upto 30 minutes. Data provided for free by IEX. IEX Terms. 
SUBSTITUTE  
Substitutes new text for old text in a text string.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
In originaltext, removes
oldtext, inserts newtext in its place, and
returns the result. oldtext and newtext
can have different lengths. which (optional) is a number which specifies which occurrence of oldtext to replace (counting from the left). If omitted, all occurrences are replaced. 
SUBTOTAL  
Returns SUM, AVERAGE, STDEV, etc. results for filtered data.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
range is the overall range from
which cells for calculation are selected by filtering. function is a number that specifies the function to calculate, as follows:


If range contains other SUBTOTAL
functions they are ignored to avoid double counting. 
SUM  
Sums the contents of cells.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number1 to number30
are up to 30 numbers or ranges/arrays of numbers whose sum is to be
calculated. SUM ignores any text or empty cell within a range or array. 
SUMIF  
Conditionally sums the contents of cells in a range.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
This function identifies those cells in the range
test_range that meet the condition, and
sums the corresponding cells in the range sum_range.
If sum_range is omitted the cells in
test_range are summed. condition may be: A number, such as 34.5 An expression, such as 2/3 or SQRT(B5) A text string SUMIF looks for cells in test_range that are equal to condition, unless condition is a text string that starts with a comparator: >, <, >=, <=, =, <> In this case SUMIF compares those cells in test_range with the remainder of the text string (interpreted as a number if possible or text otherwise). 
SUMIFS  
Conditionally sums the contents of cells for the set of ranges.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
This function identifies those cells in the
test_range's that meet the conditions, and
sums the corresponding cells in the range sum_range. condition may be: A number, such as 34.5 An expression, such as 2/3 or SQRT(B5) A text string SUMIFS looks for cells in test_ranges that are equal to corresponding conditions, unless those conditions is a text string that starts with a comparator's: >, <, >=, <=, =, <> In this case SUMIFS compares those cells in test_ranges with the remainder of the text string (interpreted as a number if possible or text otherwise). 
SUMPRODUCT  
Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array elements.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
array1 to array30
are up to 30 arrays or ranges of the same size whose corresponding
elements are to be multiplied. 
SUMSQ  
Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number1 to number30
are up to 30 numbers or ranges of numbers which are squared and then
summed. 
SUMX2MY2  
Returns the sum of the differences between corresponding squared elements of two matrices.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
x and y are
arrays or ranges of the same size. 
SUMX2PY2  
Returns the sum of the squares of all elements of two matrices.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
x and y are
arrays or ranges of the same size. 
SUMXMY2  
Returns the sum of the squared differences between corresponding elements of two matrices.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
x and y are
arrays or ranges of the same size. 
SYD  
Returns the depreciation of an asset for a given year using the sumofyears'digits method.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
originalcost: the initial cost of
the asset. salvagevalue: is the value at the end of the depreciation (sometimes called the salvage value of the asset). lifetime: the number of years over which the asset is being depreciated. year: the year number for which the depreciation is calculated. 
T  
Returns the given text, or an empty text string if the target is not text.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
If value is text, it is returned. If value is a number or a logical value, an empty text string "" is returned. 
TAN  
Returns the tangent of the given angle (in radians).  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the (trigonometric) tangent of angle,
the angle in radians. To return the tangent of an angle in degrees, use the RADIANS function. 
TANH  
Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the hyperbolic tangent of number. 
TBILLEQ  
Returns the bondequivalentyield (BEY) for a US Treasury bill.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
settlementdate: the settlement
(purchase) date of the Treasury bill. maturitydate: the maturity (redemption) date of the Treasury bill. discountrate: the discount rate of the Treasury bill. A Treasury bill is a short term (up to a year) Government security, sold at a discount to its par value (face value). It pays no interest and is redeemed at par value. This function calculates the yield that a bond would need, in order to provide growth equivalent to the Treasury bill. The bond considered assumes 365 days in the year, and pays interest only at the end of the term (ie interest is not compounded).The Treasury bill has a 360 day year basis. 
TBILLPRICE  
Returns the issue price for a US Treasury bill, per $100 par value, given a discount rate.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
settlementdate: the settlement
(purchase) date of the Treasury bill. maturitydate: the maturity (redemption) date of the Treasury bill. discountrate: the discount rate of the Treasury bill. A Treasury bill is a short term (up to a year) Government security, sold at a discount to its par value (face value). It pays no interest and is redeemed at par value. The Treasury bill here has a 360 day year basis. 
TBILLYIELD  
Returns the yield for a US Treasury bill.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
settlementdate: the settlement
(purchase) date of the Treasury bill. maturitydate: the maturity (redemption) date of the Treasury bill. issueprice: the issue price of the Treasury bill per $100 of par value. A Treasury bill is a short term (up to a year) Government security, sold at a discount to its par value (face value). It pays no interest and is redeemed at par value. The Treasury bill here has a 360 day year basis. 
TDIST  
Calculates values for a Student's tdistribution.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
x is the value at which the
distribution is calculated. r, an integer >=1, is the degrees of freedom parameter for the tdistribution. mode may be 1 or 2, to calculate the one or two tailed probability. TDIST returns the probability density function for the tdistribution. 
TEXT  
Converts a number into text according to a given format.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns number converted to text, according to the format code specified by format. 
TEXTJOIN  
Combines the text from multiple given ranges or strings with a specified delimiter separating them.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
delimiter: A text string, either an empty one or that with one or two characters. ignore_blank: The function excludes blank empty cells, if TRUE. text1 to text30: The text strings or ranges containing the strings to combine. 
TIME  
returns the time, given hours, minutes and seconds.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the time, expressed as a datetime serial
number. hours, minutes and
seconds are integers. 
TIMEVALUE  
returns the datetime serial number, from a time given as text.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
timetext is a time, expressed as
text. TIMEVALUE returns the datetime serial number, which may be formatted to read as a time. 
TINV  
Calculates the inverse of the twotailed TDIST function.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the value x, such that
TDIST(x; r; 2) is p. r (degrees of freedom) is an integer >=1. p (probability) must be >=0 and <=1. To calculate the inverse of the onetailed TDIST function, use TINV(p*2; r), which returns the value x, such that TDIST(x; r; 1) is p. 
TODAY  
Returns the current date and time  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the current date (as a datetime serial
number). TODAY is updated at every recalculation,
for instance if a cell is modified. 
TOP  
Returns top part/whole array from the top of data_range after sorting it in descending order.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
data_range is the input data, which can either be a range or an array. sort_index is the index of row/column to be be sorted. It can be a range or array, supporting sort of multiple rows/columns simultaneously. result_index is the index of result row/column and is an optional parameter which defaults to sort_index. It can be a range or array, displaying multiple rows/columns. no_of_resultsets is the number of result row/column and is an optional parameter which defaults to 1 if omitted. 
TRANSPOSE  
Returns an array with its rows and columns transposed.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
array may be either an inline array
or a range, containing all numbers. 
TREND  
Fits a straight line to data using linear regression and returns points on that line.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
yvalues and xvalues
are single row or column ranges specifying points in a set of data. TREND fits a straight line through these data points, using the linear regression method. If type is 0 the straight line found will pass through the origin. If type is nonzero or omitted the best fit straight line will be found. 
TRIM  
removes excess spaces from a text string.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns text with any leading or
trailing spaces removed, and with any multiple spaces replaced with a
single space. 
TRIMMEAN  
Returns the mean of a set of numbers, ignoring a proportion of high and low values.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
numberlist is a range or array of
numbers, not necessarily in order. TRIMMEAN returns
the mean, ignoring a fraction (0 <=
fraction < 1) of the outermost values in
numberlist. Specifically, where n is the count of numbers in numberlist, the highest and lowest INT(n * fraction / 2) values are ignored. 
TRUE  
Returns the logical value TRUE.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
The TRUE() function has no
arguments, and always returns the logical value TRUE. 
TRUNC  
Truncates a number by removing decimal places.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns number with at most places
decimal places. Excess decimal places are simply removed, irrespective
of sign. TRUNC(number; 0) behaves as INT(number) for positive numbers, but effectively rounds towards zero for negative numbers. 
TTEST  
Returns the result of a Student's ttest.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
data1 and data2
are ranges or arrays (possibly of different size) containing numbers,
on which the ttest is performed. mode is 1 for a onetailed ttest 2 for a twotailed ttest. type is 1 for paired samples 2 for two samples with equal variance 3 for two samples with unequal variance. 
TYPE  
Returns the type of value (number, text, etc.).  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the type of value as a number: 1
= number, 2 = text, 4 = logical
value, 8 = formula, 16 = error value. If a cell contains both an error and a formula, 16 (error value) is returned. A blank cell is classed as a number here, and 1 is returned. 
UPPER  
Converts a text string to uppercase.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns text with all characters
converted to upper case. 
UNIQUE  
Returns the unique array of values from a given range or array of values.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the unique array of values from a given range or array of values. range: The array of values to evaluate. col: (optional) Logical expression or value to compare the values. TRUE compares the values columnwise, while FAlSE or by row is omitted. occurs_once: (optional) Logical expression or value to return the values based on occurrence. TRUE returns those values that occur only once in the given list, while FALSE returns all the unique values in the list and hence omitted. 
VALUE  
Returns a number, given a text representation.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Converts text to a number.
text may represent: a number, including fractions,
exponential notation and (locale dependent) decimal point and thousands
separator; a percentage; or a date or time (the datetime serial number
is returned). 
VAR  
Returns the sample variance.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number1 to number30
are up to 30 numbers or ranges containing numbers. VAR returns the variance where number1 to number30 are a sample of the entire population. 
VARA  
Returns the sample variance (allowing text and logical values).  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number1 to number30
are up to 30 numbers or ranges containing numbers. Logical values and
text may also be included. VARA returns the standard deviation where number1 to number30 are a sample of the entire population. Logical values are regarded as 1 ( TRUE) and 0 ( FALSE). Text values are always regarded as zero. 
VARP  
Returns the population variance.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number1 to number30
are up to 30 numbers or ranges containing numbers. VARP returns the standard deviation where number1 to number30 are the entire population. If you only have a sample of the population use VAR instead. 
VARPA  
Returns the population variance (allowing text and logical values).  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
number1 to number30
are up to 30 numbers or ranges containing numbers. Logical values and
text may also be included. VARPA returns the variance where number1 to number30 are the entire population. If you only have a sample of the population use VARA instead. Logical values are regarded as 1 ( TRUE) and 0 ( FALSE). Text values are always regarded as zero.. 
VDB  
Returns the depreciation of an asset for a given year using a variable decliningbalance method.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
originalcost: the initial cost of
the asset. salvagevalue: is the value at the end of the depreciation (sometimes called the salvage value of the asset). lifetime: the number of years over which the asset is being depreciated. periodstart, periodend: the start and end year numbers defining the period for which the depreciation is calculated. These may be fractional, from 0 to lifetime. factor: the factor to set the depreciation rate (2 if omitted). nostraightline: TRUE to prevent VDB from using any straight line depreciation ( FALSE if omitted  ie if omitted, straight line depreciation will be used where appropriate) 
VLOOKUP  
Returns a value from a table column, in the row found by lookup in the first column.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
lookupvalue is a value (number,
text or logical value) to look up in the left column of the range/array
datatable. When a value is matched in the left column,
VLOOKUP returns the corresponding value (in the same row) in
the columnindex^{th} column of
datatable, where columnindex = 1 is the
left column. If mode is 0 or FALSE, the left column of datatable may be unordered, and the first exact match is found (searching from the top). If mode is 1 or TRUE, or is omitted, the left column of datatable must be sorted, with numbers in ascending order appearing before text values in alphabetic order. VLOOKUP decides where in the left column lookupvalue would appear. If there is an exact match, that is the row found; if there is more than one exact match, the row found is not necessarily nearest the top. If there is no exact match, the row above where value would appear in the left column is found; the #N/A error results if that row is not in the table. 
WEEKDAY  
Returns the day of the week for a given date.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the day of the week that date
falls on, as a number. The day is returned as an integer between 1 (Sunday) and 7 (Saturday) if no type or type = 1 is specified. If type=2, numbering begins at Monday=1; and if type=3 numbering begins at Monday=0. 
WEEKNUM  
Returns the ISO week number of a given date.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the international standard ISO8601 week
number, where week 1 is the week that contains January 4th. date is the date as a datetime serial number or as text. mode specifies which day is considered the first day of the week: 1 for Sunday, 2 for Monday 
WEEKNUM_ADD  
Returns the nonISO week number of a given date.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the 'conventional' nonISO week number, where
week 1 is the week that contains January 1st. date is the date as a datetime serial number or as text. mode specifies which day is considered the first day of the week: 1 for Sunday, 2 for Monday. 
WEEKS  
Returns the number of weeks between two dates.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
If mode is 0,
WEEKS returns the number of whole weeks between
startdate and enddate  that is
INT(number_of_days_difference / 7). If mode is 1, WEEKS identifies the Monday_to_Sunday week that startdate and enddate each lie in, and returns the difference between those weeks. If startdate is after enddate the result will be negative. 
WEEKSINYEAR  
Returns the number of weeks in a year.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the number of weeks in the year in which
date lies. A week is considered to start on Monday, and is considered to be in the year if most of its days are in that year. 
WEIBULL  
Calculates values for a Weibull distribution.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
The Weibull distribution is a continuous probability
distribution, with parameters k > 0 (shape)
and λ > 0 (scale). If mode is 0, WEIBULL calculates the probability density function of the Weibull distribution. If mode is 1, WEIBULL calculates the cumulative distribution function of the Weibull distribution. 
WORKDAY  
Returns a date a given number of workdays away.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the date that is days
workdays after the given date startdate. days is a number (which may be negative to find a date before startdate). Saturday and Sunday are assumed to be nonworking days. hols_range (optional) is a range containing dates of other nonworking days. 
XIRR  
Calculates the internal rate of return of a series of irregular cash flows.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
payments is a range containing the
payments made or received, at irregular intervals. dates is a range containing dates on which the payments were made or received. guess (optional, defaults to 10%) is a first guess at the rate. XIRR iterates to find the rate of return which gives a zero net present value for the cash flows. At least one of the cash flows must be negative and at least one positive  to allow the net present value to be zero. The rate of return is per annum, and interest is assumed compounded annually, with a year assumed to be 365 days long. The order in which the payments/dates are stated is not important, except that the first payment given must have the earliest date. 
XNPV  
Returns the net present value of an investment with irregular cash payments.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
rate is the annual interest rate. payments is a range or array containing payments made, positive if paid to you, negative if you pay. dates is a range or array containing the dates on which those payments are made. 
XOR  
With two logical statements, XOR returns TRUE if either statement is TRUE, but returns FALSE if both statements are TRUE. If neither is TRUE, XOR also returns FALSE.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
logical1: logical value, or expression which returns logical value logical2 to logical30 logical value, or expression which returns logical value 
YEAR  
Returns the year of a given date.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the year of date as a
number. date may be text or a datetime serial number. 
YEARFRAC  
Returns the number of years including fraction between two dates.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
Returns the number of years between the
startdate and enddate; basis
is an integer specifying the system of how many days are in a month or
year, as follows: 
YEARS  
Returns the number of years between two dates.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
If mode is 0,
YEARS returns the number of whole years between
startdate and enddate, day/month to
day/month. If mode is 1, YEARS identifies the year that startdate and enddate each lie in, and returns the difference between those years. In other words it returns YEAR(enddate)  YEAR(startdate) If startdate is after enddate the result will be negative. 
YIELD  
Calculates the yield for an interest paying security.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
settlementdate: the settlement
(purchase) date of the security. maturitydate: the maturity (redemption) date of the security. rate: the (annual) coupon rate of the security. price: the price of the security, per 100 par value. redemptionvalue: the redemption value of the security, per 100 par value. frequency: number of interest payments per year (1, 2 or 4). basis: is the calendar system to use. Defaults to 0 if omitted. 0  US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each 1  Actual number of days in months, actual number of days in year 2  Actual number of days in month, year has 360 days 3  Actual number of days in month, year has 365 days 4  European method, 12 months of 30 days each 
YIELDDISC  
Calculates the yield for a noninterest paying discounted bond.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
settlementdate: the settlement
(purchase) date of the bond. maturitydate: the maturity (redemption) date of the bond. price: the price of the security, per 100 par value. redemptionvalue: the redemption value of the bond, per 100 par value. basis: is the calendar system to use. Defaults to 0 if omitted. 0  US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each 1  Actual number of days in months, actual number of days in year 2  Actual number of days in month, year has 360 days 3  Actual number of days in month, year has 365 days 4  European method, 12 months of 30 days each YIELDDISC calculates the annual (uncompounded) yield for a bond which pays no interest (a 'pure discount instrument' or 'discounted zero coupon bond'). 
YIELDMAT  
Calculates the yield for a bond that pays interest on maturity.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
settlementdate: the settlement
(purchase) date of the bond. maturitydate: the maturity (redemption) date of the bond. issuedate: the original issue date of the bond. rate: the (annual) interest rate of the bond (interest only paid at maturity). price: the price of the bond, per 100 par value. basis: is the calendar system to use. Defaults to 0 if omitted. 0  US method (NASD), 12 months of 30 days each 1  Actual number of days in months, actual number of days in year 2  Actual number of days in month, year has 360 days 3  Actual number of days in month, year has 365 days 4  European method, 12 months of 30 days each This function calculates the yield for a bond which pays interest just once, at maturity. 
ZTEST  
Returns the result of a ztest.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
data is a range or array containing
a random sample from a population (population assumed to have a normal
distribution). μ is the (known) mean of the population. σ is the (known) standard deviation of the population. If omitted, it is estimated from the sample data by STDEV(data). ZTEST returns the onesided cumulative probability  the area under the standard normal curve to the right of the z value. 
XLOOKUP  
Tests the search_table for the given lookup_value and returns a corresponding value from the result_table. XLOOKUP is an advanced version of the VLOOKUP and HLOOKUP functions that searches both vertically and horizontally.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
lookup_value : The value to search for in the search_table. search_table : Range with values to evaluate. result_table : Range that you want the corresponding value from as result. if_not_found : Text to be displayed when no valid match is found. Defaults to #N/A error if omitted. match_mode : Determines the type of match to perform. Defaults to 0, if omitted. 0  The first exact match is considered. 1  The first exact match is considered. If none found, it returns the next smallest value. 1  The first exact match is considered. If none found, it returns the next largest value. 2  A regex match where .*, .?, and / have special meaning. search_mode. : Determines how lookup_value is searched in search_table. . Defaults to 1, if omitted. 1  Search from top to bottom in the given range. 1  Search from bottom to top in the given range. 2  Perform a binary search with the search_table sorted in ascending order. If not sorted, invalid results will be returned. 2  Perform a binary search with the search_table sorted in descending order. If not sorted, invalid results will be returned. Note: .*  Can be used to replace any number of characters. Eg., Zyl.* finds Zylker .?  Can be used to replace a single character. Eg., Karthi.? finds Karthik and Karthic /  Can be used to include *, ? and / in the search term. Eg., Zylker/* finds Zylker* and Karthi.?/? finds Karthik? and Karthic? 
XMATCH  
Returns the relative position of the given value in a given range. XMATCH is an advanced version of the MATCH function.  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
search_item : The value to search for in the search_region. search_region: Range with values to evaluate. match_mode : Determines the type of match to perform. Defaults to 0, if omitted. 0  The first exact match is considered. 1  The first exact match is considered. If none found, it returns the next smallest value. 1  The first exact match is considered. If none found, it returns the next largest value. 2  A regex match where .*, .?, and / have special meaning. search_mode. : Determines how lookup_value is searched in search_table. . Defaults to 1, if omitted. 1  Search from top to bottom in the given range. 1  Search from bottom to top in the given range. 2  Perform a binary search with the search_table sorted in ascending order. If not sorted, invalid results will be returned. 2  Perform a binary search with the search_table sorted in descending order. If not sorted, invalid results will be returned. Note: .*  Can be used to replace any number of characters. Eg., Zyl.* finds Zylker .?  Can be used to replace a single character. Eg., Karthi.? finds Karthik and Karthic /  Can be used to include *, ? and / in the search term. Eg., Zylker/* finds Zylker* and Karthi.?/? finds Karthik? and Karthic? 
IMPORTRANGE  
Imports values from a given range of cells from another specified spreadsheet (workbook).  
Syntax  


Syntax Description  
spreadsheet_url: The link of the source spreadsheet from where the range is to be imported. Eg., "https://sheet.zoho.com/sheet/open/c2zep9f2d2676610d426fb3ab9652164d0f87". range_string: The reference of the range to be imported. Eg., "Sheet1.A2:F10". Note:  The source spreadsheet must be linked in order to pull data using IMPORTRANGE function.  The user must have access to the source spreadsheet to link it.  The values get autoupdated when there is a change in the source range. 
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